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Kansas Historical Quarterly - Bluemont Central College

The Forerunner of Kansas State College

by J. T. Willard

May 1945 (Vol. 13 No. 6), pages 323 to 357.
Transcribed by lhn; digitized with permission of the Kansas Historical Society.

Kansas Historical Quarterly, May 1945THE establishment of Bluemont Central College was accomplished through the efforts of men who came from many different places, and who united in the settlement and development of the locality at the junction of the Big Blue and the Kansas rivers. [1] As early as June, 1854, Col. George S. Park, of Parkville, Mo., located a claim as the site of a town to be called Polistra. This was on the north side of the Kansas river, below the mouth of Wildcat creek. [2] In the fall of the same year Samuel D. Houston of Illinois, Judge Saunders W. Johnston of Ohio, Judge J. M. Russell of Iowa, Dr. H. A. Wilcox of Rhode Island, and E. M. Thurston, a lawyer from Maine, associated themselves in the location of a townsite on the west side of the Blue river, between its mouth and Bluemont hill. [3] These men were reputed to be college graduates and undoubtedly were well educated. They had named their projected town Canton. Colonel Park had spent the winter in Texas, and March 26, 1855, Prof. I. T. Goodnow pitched his tent on Colonel Park's claim. [4]

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Professor Goodnow had left Boston March 6, one week in advance of a large party, in order to select a location for himself and those associated with him. He was highly pleased by the region adjacent to the confluence of the Kansas and the Blue rivers. [5] Others of the party also arrived in time to vote at the election held March 30, 1855, at Juniata, a small settlement on the east side of the Blue river, and four or five miles from its mouth. [6]

Colonel Park returned early in April, and conferences among those in interest, including other settlers in the locality, were held. "The settlers of the Big Blue and the Kanzas rivers met April 3, 1855, for consultation in reference to a townsite." [7] Several meetings at short intervals were held. At the meeting April 13 it was voted "That Mr. Park be invited to address the Trustees in reference to an agricultural school. Mr. Park responded to the invitation." [8] This is the earliest record related to the planning which led to the establishment of Bluemont Central College. Colonel Park had some individual ideas concerning education, believing that academic study should be accompanied by practical work in agriculture and other industries. Later he made these important features of Park College, Parkville, Mo.

Those having interests in the locality united to form "The Boston Association of Kanzas Territory," and to locate on the site a town to be named Boston. [9] The first of June, 1855, the Steamer Hartford arrived with "The Cincinnati and Kanzas Land Company" on board. An agreement was made with the said Co. to locate here, instead of going above Fort Riley as they had originally designed. The terms of the contract will be found on record. The name agreed on after this last marriage was Manhattan; and we now make the report of the Trustees of the Manhattan Town Association [10]

The details of the contract between the Boston Association and the Cincinnati Company are not involved in this article further than to state that the two organizations retained their identity, and had their separate interests and obligations, while having equal shares in the townsite. John Pipher and Andrew J. Mead were prominent members of the Cincinnati Company, and acted as its agents in effecting the consolidation. [11]

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In a lecture on the Manhattan Institute delivered about 1874, the Rev. Washington Marlatt recalled that during the winter of 18561857, he and Mr. Albert Griffin used to "meet at Mr. Miller's store, run by Mr. Pipher, and, while waiting for something to turn up, to talk up the interests of the town. My hobby was the establishment of a college. Mr. Griffin, while favoring the idea, thought the thing entirely impracticable at that time, but thought the founding of a debating club or literary association both feasible and a thing of practical utility." [12] The Manhattan Institute was chartered February 14, 1857, by the Kansas legislature, [13] and Mr. Griffin was the first president, while Mr. Marlatt and others continued to "talk up" a college.

Contemporary written or printed material concerning the college project is almost nonexistent. The connection of Colonel Park has been noted. The next earliest item found was in Professor Goodnow's diary. He wrote: "Rode to Manhattan to meeting. Preaching by Br. J. Denison. . . . On my return . . . Br. D- came along with me. Talked over the subject of an Institution of Learning at Manhattan. . . ." [14] This entry also appears: ". . . Went to Mr. Houston's. . . . Quite a talk with Mr. H- about an M. E. College at Manhattan. He is favorable. . . ." [15]

Professor Goodnow was a loyal supporter of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and the local trustees appointed him an agent to go to the East and solicit financial aid. [16] At a trustees' meeting held at his home "The subject of a college was discussed, & favorable action had, conditional on the action of the Cincinnati Land Company." [17]

Professor Goodnow also wrote:

Went to Manhattan & consulted with the Town Companies respecting a Methodist College, near Manhattan. To forward this they have pledged 50 shares of Manhattan stock & 100 building lots. Joined Mr. Houston in buying out a claim that will furnish a good site for the C- & put it into the hands of Thomas Playford. A hard day's work, but I hope a profitable one. [18]

In close succession, Professor Goodnow talked with Mr. Houston, Mr. Marlatt and Doctor Still about the college project, and arrived at the conclusion that it would be necessary to obtain local subscriptions.

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tions in its support. A group meeting at the home of the Rev. Joseph Denison "Nominated 13 Trustees for Bluemont Central College, to be presented to the Kansas & Nebraska Conference," which was to meet in Nebraska City, Neb. [19] The brief entries by Professor Goodnow in his diary are materially supplemented by accounts written at different times by the Rev. Washington Marlatt. In a historical introduction to the minutes proper of the Bluemont Central College Association Mr. Marlatt wrote

At a Quarterly Meeting Conference of the M. E. Church held in the vicinity of Manhattan, Riley Co., Kansas Territory, in the spring of 1857, Abram Still, P. E., J. Denison, P. C., and Washington Marlatt, Sec., a plan was inaugurated for the erection of a college at or near Manhattan to be under the patronage of the Methodist Episcopal Church in Kansas.
The following names were put in nomination as a board of trustees, viz. S. D. Houston, I. T. Goodnow, Joseph Denison, C. E. Blood, W. A. McCollom, Washington Marlatt, L. B. Dennis, C. H. Lovejoy, R. P. Duval, T. H. Webb, Newell Trafton, John Kimball, A. I. Davis, S. C. Pomeroy and G. S. Park. [20]

Messrs. Goodnow, Denison, Marlatt and Lovejoy attended the conference held at Nebraska City, and met many of the preachers, and the committee on education. The committee approved their college plan, and Goodnow and Denison were appointed agents for Bluemont Central College. It developed that the bishop was opposed to having the itinerant preachers act as agents for colleges. Goodnow comments: "A damper on our College plans. Our College trustees have concluded to go ahead in spite of the opposition of the Bishop to a conference agent. Br. J. Denison will take agency. The Lord help us to do our duty." [21]

The Rev. Washington Marlatt wrote as follows concerning this episode At a session of the Annual Conference convened at Nebraska City, April 16, 1857, the enterprise was strongly opposed by some of the special friends of Baker University, on the plea of its being gotten up as a rival institution. . . . It was considered rather providential that the Bishop, whose duty it is to be present at, and preside over the deliberations of the Conference, failed to get there till the fifth day of the session, when the business of the Conference relating to educational matters was already finished. Bishop Ames who had grown up in the wilds of Hoosierdom, where it took fifty years to accomplish what we did in Kansas in less than ten, thought we were going

WILLARD: BLUEMONT CENTRAL COLLEGE 327

entirely too fast in these matters, and took occasion to criticize the action of the Conference severely. . . [22]

The action of the conference was recorded in the following minutes:

Your Committee [on Education] would further report:
That Whereas, the Manhattan Town Association have agreed to donate fifty shares of stock in Manhattan city, and the Cincinnati and Kansas Land Company have agreed to donate one hundred lots in said city for the establishment of an Institution of learning under the patronage of the M. E. Church to be called Bluemont Central College, on condition that the Kansas and Nebraska Annual Conference of the M. E. Church approve and adopt the same,
And, Whereas, A certain number of acres of land have been secured within a short distance of said town for the location of said College,
And, Whereas, The citizens of Manhattan and the surrounding country have manifested a deep interest in the enterprise by subscribing a creditable amount of funds for said enterprise, therefore,
Resolved, That this Conference accept their propositions, elect a Board of Trustees, and appoint two agents to assist in prosecuting the work. [23]

Mr. Marlatt wrote:

The enterprise met with the approval of the Annual Conference which held its session at Nebraska City in April, 1857. Whereupon the initiatory steps of the Quarterly Conference were confirmed by the appointment of the persons put in nomination as trustees of Bluemont Central College Association with power and authority to organize under such Constitution and By-laws as they might see fit to adopt, for the purpose of enabling them to speed the enterprise and place it on a successful basis. [24]

After approval by the conference the board of trustees of the Bluemont Central College Association met at the home of the Rev. Joseph Denison and organized by the election of "S. D. Houston, president, Joseph Denison, vice-president, C. E. Blood, treasurer, and Washington Marlatt, secretary. . . . Joseph Denison and I. T. Goodnow were appointed general agents with discretionary power to procure funds to erect a suitable college building, and in all proper ways to advance the enterprise." A committee was appointed to secure a suitable site for the building.25

On June 9, 1857, the trustees of Bluemont Central College met at the college grounds and selected a site for the college building, consulted concerning its plan, and appointed Messrs. Marlatt, McCollom and Trafton.to be a committee to have its foundation accord

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ing to the contract. Messrs. Houston, Park, Pomeroy and Mead " . were appointed to devise ways and means to secure a grant of land from Congress to establish an agricultural department for Bluemont Central College." [26]

From the conference Mr. Goodnow went on to the East in performance of his mission to collect funds for his church, and occasionally sought to create interest in the proposed college. [27] He reached home November 21, 1857, and on November 27, a meeting of the trustees of the college was held at his home. Plans were initiated to have a tract of land preempted as a site for the college. [28] Organization was effected previous to incorporation, and an agent was sent East to solicit funds for carrying out the college project. The idea did not elicit much support, and the agent did not collect enough to pay his expenses. [29] The Rev. Joseph Denison was allowed two shares of stock of the Manhattan Town Company, valued at $100 each, credit for his own subscription of $300, and $50 in addition, for his services and expenses on his trip to the East to secure funds for the college building. [30]

Messrs. Houston, Denison and Park were constituted a committee to memorialize the legislature of Kansas territory to use its influence to induce congress to grant land for the establishment of an agricultural department in Bluemont Central College. [31]

"Prof. I. T. Goodnow and Washington Marlatt were appointed a committee to have the legislative assembly grant a charter to this Association." [32]

At a meeting of the trustees of Bluemont Central College it was "decided to go ahead with Bluemont Town Site & make improvements to hold it in proper form. Resolved to memorialize the Legislature & Congress to grant Lands for Endowment of the Agricultural post. Settled with agent, J. Denison, for $400. besides expenses.

Incidental conversation about agent another year." [33] Mr. Goodnow "with C. E. Blood, W. Marlatt & J. Denison, Surveyed a place for building 'Bluemont Central College.' 45 x 70 ft. 2 stories high with a basement to be of stone." A conversation was held with

WILLARD: BLUEMONT CENTRAL COLLEGE 327

Mr. McCollom with reference to his deeding 40 acres for college purposes. [34] After conference and tentative work by Mr. Goodnow on a charter, the trustees of Bluemont Central College "decided on a charter & a memorial to the Legislature," and Mr. Goodnow "left home with W. Marlatt for Lawrence to get Bluemont Central College incorporated &c. . . ." [35] The legislature met at Lawrence in 1858. Mr. Goodnow made the acquaintance of several members, and a charter for the college was drawn up which was offered to the legislature by A. J. Mead. [36]

While action was maturing in the legislature Mr. Goodnow made a trip to Parkville, Mo., much of it on foot, to see Colonel Park on hotel and college business, returning to Lawrence February 6. [37] Mr. Marlatt had remained in Lawrence looking after legislation. [38]

The charter for Bluemont Central College was passed by the legislature, and Acting Gov. J. W. Denver approved it February 9, 1858. Ten other organizations were incorporated by the same legislature for the establishment of institutions of higher learning. Of these only Baker University and Highland University survive, the latter as Highland Junior College. [39]

The act incorporating Bluemont Central College Association is as follows:

Be it enacted by the Governor and Legislative Assembly of the Territory of Kansas:
SECTION 1. That J. Denison, S. D. Houston, C. E. Blood, W. McCullom, J. [L] T. Goodnow, Washington Marlatt, G. S. Park, S. C. Pomeroy, T. H. Webb, and their associates and successors, are hereby constituted a body corporate, under the name and style of the Blue Mont Central College Association, and by that name shall have perpetual succession, and shall have a common seal, and may change and alter the same at pleasure, may sue and be sued, plead and be impleaded, defend and be defended, in any court of law or equity, and shall have power to hold by gift, grant, devise, purchase or otherwise, any lands, tenements, hereditaments, moneys, rents, goods and chattels of whatever kind, that have been heretofore, or may hereafter be given, granted or devised to, or purchased by them, for the benefit of said association, and may sell and dispose of the same, or any part thereof, on lease or rent, or improve the same in such manner as they shall deem most conducive to the interests of said association.

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SEC. 2. The objects of the association are, and shall be, the promotion of education and science in Kansas Territory.
SEC. 3. It shall be lawful for this association to locate a college, to be called the Blue Mont Central College, at or near Manhattan city, Kansas Territory.
SEC. 4. That the said association shall have power and authority to establish, in addition to the literary department of arts and sciences, an agricultural department, with separate professors, to test soils, experiment in the raising of crops, the cultivation of trees, and upon a farm set apart for the purpose, so as to bring out, to the utmost practical result, the agricultural advantages of Kansas, especially the capabilities of its high prairie lands.
SEC. 5. This association shall have power to make all rules, by-laws and regulations necessary to carry out the provisions of this Act.
SEC. 6. All property or funds, real, personal or mixed, that may be received, held or appropriated by or for said association, for the exclusive purposes of education, literary, scientific and agricultural, shall be forever exempt from taxation; Provided, That nothing in this Act shall be so construed, in such manner, as to allow said corporation to hold more than five thousand acres of land at one time.
This Act to take effect and be in force from and after its passage.
[Signed,]
Approved February 9, 1858. J. W. DENVER, Acting Governor. [40]
G. W. DEITZLER, Speaker of House of Representatives.
C. W. BABCOCK, President of the Council.

Especial attention should be given to the persistence of the idea of making provision for agricultural education and experimentation. During the earliest years Bluemont was written as two words, but these were soon united to the familiar form. Bluemont is a hill 215.75 feet in height above the Blue river. [41] It presents a bold front toward the Kansas river valley at the northeast corner of the townsite of Manhattan. It was a well-known landmark for early travelers in that region. It was named by John C. Fremont who camped at its base when on one of his memorable expeditions across the plains. [42]

The incorporators of Bluemont Central College were prominent men in the immediate locality or elsewhere. Joseph Denison was a Methodist minister in Boston at the time of his decision to emigrate to Kansas . [43] Isaac T. Goodnow was professor of natural

WILLARD: BLUEMONT CENTRAL COLLEGE 331

science in East Greenwich Academy, East Greenwich, R. I., from 1848 to 1855, when he resigned to go to Kansas with the avowed purpose of helping to make it a free state. [44] Washington Marlatt was a graduate of Indiana Asbury University, now DePauw University, Greencastle, Ind. He came to Manhattan in 1856. He was an itinerant Methodist minister in Kansas for a considerable period. [45]

C. E. Blood was a Congregational minister from Mason, N. H., who began service in Kansas as a home missionary by preaching in Juniata in November, 1854. [46] Mr. Blood organized the Congregational church in Manhattan. Wm. A. McCollom was also a Congregational minister, and from October, 1860, to April, 1863, served the Congregational church in Wabaunsee. [47] S. D. Houston, from Illinois, was one of the Canton group which, with others, formed the Manhattan Town Association. He was the only Free-State representative in the territorial legislature of 1855, and later filled important public positions. [48] Samuel C. Pomeroy was financial agent of the New England Emigrant Aid Company, [49] which promoted the settling of Free-State men in Kansas. He was very prominent in public affairs, and became one of the first two United States senators from Kansas. Thomas H. Webb was secretary of the New England Emigrant Aid Company. [50] In preceding paragraphs the character and importance of Col. Geo. S. Park have been indicated in a measure. A biography as prepared by the Rev. E. B. Sherwood was read at the funeral of Colonel Park. It presented briefly his colorful career. . . . [51]

These brief notes indicate the caliber of the men who founded Bluemont Central College, and their bringing this enterprise to a successful issue is a tribute to their persistence, and to the character and the sincerity of those who contributed financially to the support of the undertaking. It should be noted, however, that while an imposing array of names appears, and was maintained, in the list of trustees, Messrs. Marlatt, Denison and Goodnow were the only ones who took financial risks beyond their individual subscriptions. Their

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vision initiated the enterprise, their faith carried it on, and their labor brought the successful issue. [52]

Shortly after the chartering of Bluemont Central College Association by the legislature, the trustees met and organized by electing S. D. Houston president, Joseph Denison vice-president, I. T. Goodnow treasurer, and Washington Marlatt, secretary. Members of the association whose names do not appear in the charter were constituted associate members. [53] The trustees voted to accept the lands and funds offered by the Bluemont Town Company, and Prof. I. T. Goodnow was appointed to receive them. Messrs. Blood, Denison and Goodnow were made a committee to wait upon A. J. Mead, and attempt to get more favorable terms for the donation of one hundred lots pledged conditionally by the Cincinnati and Kanzas Land Company. Messrs. Wm. A. McCollom and I. T. Goodnow were appointed a committee to draft a constitution for the association. [54]

The Kansas and Nebraska conference of the Methodist Episcopal church held its meeting for 1858 in Topeka, and the minutes recorded that:

The Trustees of Blue Mount Central College the past year have secured from the Legislature of Kansas a very liberal charter. They have also secured upward of two hundred acres of land within one mile of Manhattan City, with the prospect of adding thereto; making one of the most beautiful sites for a college to be found anywhere. They now have one hundred lots in the city of Manhattan, the present value of which would be at least five thousand dollars. They have on the subscription list about two thousand dollars, and contingent pledges to a large amount more. It is the purpose of the trustees to erect a substantial stone building, and to have the institution in operation at the earliest possible period. Your committee recommend the renewal of the appointment of the trustees of last year, with the additional name of Thomas Webb. The trustees respectfully petition the Conference to authorize the appointment of Isaac T. Goodnow, A. M., as agent for the institution for the ensuing year. [55]

Soon after the annual conference the trustees of Bluemont Central College Association held a meeting at which "Prof. I. T. Goodnow presented a constitution which after various corrections and amendments was unanimously adopted." 66 The constitution is recorded in the minute book of the association. [57] The Rev. I. Kalloch was

WILLARD: BLUEMONT CENTRAL COLLEGE 333

"authorized to collect funds for the erection of a college building," and Messrs. Blood, Marlatt and Denison were made a committee to survey anew the townsite of Bluemont and purchase additions to it. [58]

The site chosen for Bluemont Central College was part of a projected town called Bluemont and was about three miles from the village of Manhattan. There were no business houses there, and pioneer residences scattered on surrounding farms afforded the only opportunities for rooms or board for students who might be attracted from more distant localities. The trustees of Bluemont Central College Association in order to alleviate this condition voted "that Rev. Washington Marlatt be a committee to donate lots in the town of Bluemont to such persons as will within a reasonable length of time put up suitable buildings on the same," and he was instructed to have the townsite resurveyed in part by having certain parallels run.

S. D. Houston resigned the presidency of the board of trustees of Bluemont Central College Association, and I. T. Goodnow was appointed to succeed him, and, apparently, he retained the treasurership. Mr. Goodnow was also constituted the "regular and lawful agent with power of attorney invested with full authority to dispose of all property belonging to the Bluemont Central College Association, together with one-third of the lots in the town of Bluemont, Riley County, Kansas Territory, to raise the necessary funds for the erection of a college building in said town." [60]

Professor Goodnow made a trip to the East in 1858, and as agent of Bluemont Central College Association called upon many of his acquaintances, and others to whom he had introductions. He seems to have had a remarkable faculty for persuasion, and his diary re cords his successes and failures. He returned to Manhattan, and at a meeting of the trustees of the association he reported that he had sold $3,300 worth of lots, and that $3,000 worth of real estate had been donated to the college. His expenses had been about $150. He was made permanent agent for the college, and allowed a salary of $800 up to April 1, 1859, and $1,000 a year for ensuing years. [61]

During the winter of 1858-1859, Mr. Goodnow attended to the digging of a well on the site selected for the college building. This was finished January 31, and pronounced "a noble" well. [62] Although

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described with such initial enthusiasm, the well failed and was deepened, and even then did not meet the needs of stone masons and plasterers who erected the building later. [63]

On February 15, 1859, the trustees of the association voted "that we proceed to erect a college building during the present [year] at a cost of not less than six thousand dollars." It was also voted "that Professor I. T. Goodnow be added to, and be made chairman of, the building committee." Joseph Denison and Washington Marlatt were the other members. [64]

The conference records for 1859 contain this information concerning the enterprise:

The Trustees of Bluemont Central College have regularly laid out the two hundred and twenty acres of land in their possession into a town, calling it "Bluemont."
They have let out the contract for the erection of a substantial stone building, sixty by forty-four feet, three stories high, to be surmounted with a cupola, all to be executed in good style, and to be ready for occupancy, in part, by the first of December, 1859, when they expect to open a school of a grade to meet the demands of the times and the place. Said college building will cost, when completed, not less than ten thousand dollars.
They have, aside from the lands above named, reliable subscriptions to the amount of two thousand dollars, one hundred lots in the city of Manhattan, the present value of which is not less than six thousand dollars, and notes bearing interest, payable on demand, to the amount of fifteen hundred dollars.
Your committee would respectfully recommend the appointment of J. J. Davis, Dr. J. W. Robison, John Pip[hler, George S. Park and Rev. John Paulson as Trustees of said College, for the space of three years, from the first of April, A. D. 1859. They would furthermore beg leave to offer the following resolution for your adoption
Resolved, That as a Conference we highly approve the efforts of the Trustees of Bluemont Central College, to erect a noble College edifice the present year, and most cordially approve the continuation of Prof. I. T. Goodnow as agent, to carry out their plans for its erection. [65]

It was further stated:

The Trustees of Bluemont Central College, through their Agents the past year, have secured from the Legislature of Kansas a very liberal Charter. They have also secured one hundred acres of land within a mile of Manhattan City, with the prospect of adding thereto. They have one hundred lots in the City of Manhattan, now worth five thousand dollars, and subscriptions amounting to about two thousand dollars, besides contingent pledges to a large amount. They purpose erecting a substantial stone building, and to

WILLARD: BLUEMONT CENTRAL COLLEGE 335

have the Institution in operation at the earliest possible period. The Trustees respectfully petition the Conference to appoint Isaac T. Goodnow, A. M., Agent for the Institution for the present year. [66]

Professor Goodnow spent much time on the college project during the spring months. He surveyed the site, collaborated with J. H. Brous in drawing plans for the building, arranged with neighboring citizens to furnish timber for structural use, interviewed builders and mechanics, and prepared specifications for the carpenters. [67] On April 29 he started to the East to continue solicitation of funds for the building. On the way he stopped at Leavenworth and bought lumber for the building from L. R. Griffin. Mr. H. P. Johnson went security for him. He contracted with Captain Beasley for transportation of $1,064.70 worth of lumber to Manhattan by the steamer Gus Linn. He also bought hardware to the amount of $82.95. [68] The steamer embarked May 8, and reached Manhattan, May 15. The freight charges were $80. [69]

The cornerstone of the college building was laid May 10, 1859. No local account of the proceedings was published, but T. C. Wells, in a letter to his father, wrote May 14, 1859:

They had speeches &c at the laying of the corner stone of the "Blue Mont Central College" last Tuesday afternoon, the first ceremony of the kind that has occurred in Kansas. About three hundred people were present and some very good speeches were made. Quite a number of documents were placed in the cavity of the stone. The college building will be 40[44] ft. x 60 ft. on the ground and three stories high, all stone-underpinning corners, and window and door caps to be hewn, the rest rough work. It will be in full view from our house, half a mile distant [70]

The Kansas Express, later named Manhattan Express, began publication soon after, probably May 21, 1859, [71] but would not publish an account of the ceremony, alleging that it was no longer news. There was probably delay in getting in a report. [72]

The contract for stone work on the college building was given to Clarke W. Lewis, for carpenter work, to Jasher H. Brous, and for plastering, and perhaps painting, to (H. or William?) Bloss. Many others worked on the building. J. C. Christensen wrote that his father, Niels Christensen, acted as cook for the gang, and told him

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that the preachers of the neighborhood used to help out. Of these, only the Rev. W. Marlatt worked on Saturday; the others had to prepare their sermons for the next day, but he could preach without preparation."

During the absence of Professor Goodnow, immediate responsibility for superintendence of the building operations fell upon Messrs. Marlatt and Denison. Mr. Marlatt wrote frequent letters to Mr. Goodnow. In one of these he stated that it took all of the time of himself or Denison to attend to the undertaking. [74] Mr. Denison was away a good deal on his ministerial duties, so the brunt of the oversight of the construction and the supply of materials was met by Mr. Marlatt. It was a wearisome task. The greatest cause of worry was the lack of cash to meet the bills for labor and materials. In spite of difficulties, fair progress was made, and by August 10 the masons were working on the walls of the third story. [75]

With numerous other duties, also, Mr. Marlatt at one time felt so "heartily tired," that but for "the idea of shirking responsibilities" he would gladly have abandoned all and retired to private life. [76] Yet within a month he wrote: We wish if possible to have two rooms at least lathed and plastered this fall so as to have a school this winter. It must be done if at all possible. We can have one of a mixed character. . . . I have no great confidence in myself as an "educator," but if duty requires I am willing to try it on a while at least. . . . [77]

Later, Mr. Marlatt wrote to Mr. Goodnow:

I can make arrangements to live in the College the coming winter if need be. I gave my opinion in reference to a school, and the paper in my last. Let us have a school by all means. Paper is inefficient. Sold out to Whiskey, Mead, Snow and Co. Let it go.

With reference to the college building, he estimated the financial needs until the next spring at $1,000, and stated that "after so long a time we have near about all things in readiness to raise the roof." The paper referred to was The Kansas Express, published by C. F. De Vivaldi. [78]

[drawing of Bluemont Central College, Kansas, in 1867.]

The building was erected in 1859 by the Bluemont Central College Association. When it was given to the state in 1863 first classes for Kansas State College were held here. It was razed in 1883. The cut is from a drawing made from a lithograph accompanying a map of Manhattan published in 1867. The sketch is imperfect, as it does not show the name Bluemont College, which was cut in the stone arch over the window in the gable. (This and succeeding cuts courtesy of Dr. J. T. Willard.)

WILLARD: BLUEMONT CENTRAL COLLEGE 337

At this stage of construction the Manhattan paper published the following paragraph:

THE MANHATTAN COLLEGE.-This splendid, large three-story stone edifice is fast approaching its completion. The mason's work was finished some time since, and the carpenters are now employing all their skill and energy to have the building ready for schooling by the first of December. We cannot find words strong enough to eulogise the spirit of enterprise, and the devotion to the noble causes of Christianity and learning, which have characterized the whole conduct of the eminent men who exerted themselves with such an untired constancy in behalf of the complete success of the Manhattan College. This institution is to be under the supervision of the Methodist Episcopal denomination, and will eventually be made one of their best colleges in the West. Projects of building grand seminaries, universities and colleges are quite common in the numerous cities of Kansas; but so far as we are informed, we believe that ours of Manhattan is the only one which has been effectually built. [79]

At a meeting of the Bluemont Central College Association action was taken stated as follows:

On motion of Rev. Joseph Denison; Resolved that the time is fully come to open a school in the college.
On motion voted that there be but two departments, viz : Primary and Preparatory. On motion voted that a committee of five be appointed to carry out the above resolution. Marlatt, Goodnow, Blood, Denison and McCollom were made said committee.
Prof. I. T. Goodnow being called upon gave a satisfactory report on the financial concerns of the college. [80]

The management of the school seems to have been entirely in the bands of the committee provided. There is no mention of employment of teachers by the trustees at this meeting, but the Express had already published a paragraph stating that the trustees had decided that the college "should be opened for the reception of students during the first week of January, and that, for the present, the Rev. Washington Marlatt should be entrusted with the instruction of the first pupils. . . ." The editor continued with a recommendation of "this new and beautiful institution of learning and morality." [81] Mr. Goodnow spent considerable time during the first week of 1860 securing students for the school, and preparing a room in the college building. The school opened January 9, 1860, with an enrollment of 29 pupils. [82]

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This advertisement was carried in the Manhattan Express, and similar advertisements appeared for the second, third and fourth terms

BLUEMONT COLLEGE

By order of the Board of Trustees, this school will open January 9th, 1860, under the charge of Rev. Washington Marlatt, A. M., assisted by Miss Julia A. Bailey, an experienced and successful teacher.
Tuition per term of 11 weeks as follows:
Common English branches........................... $3
Higher English branches, as Philosophy,  
Physiology, Algebra, etc.................................. 4
Languages........................................ 5

Tuition in Advance.
Necessary textbooks in the hands of the Treasurer at low rates. The Trustees design furnishing facilities for a continuous and ample course of Academical and Collegiate study.
Farther information can be obtained by addressing the President or Secretary.
I. T. GOODNOW, Pres. & Treas. W. MARLATT, Sec'y [83]

WILLARD: BLUEMONT CENTRAL COLLEGE 339

W. R. Clark offering it to him. [88] No record of Mr. Clark's reply has been found, but evidently he did not accept the honor.

Several matters of only current importance were handled by the trustees at the annual meeting held March 10, 1860, in addition to a few of more permanent interest. The committee appointed to open the school reported that "a school opened January 9th, 1860, under the charge of Rev. Washington Marlatt as Principal and Miss Julia A. Bailey as assistant. Whole number of students enrolled up to the present time, fifty-three. They have visited the school from time to time, noted the manner of conducting the same, and find it in every way satisfactory." [89]

It was also moved "that the joint board, as per the requirements of the constitution, proceed to elect a person to take charge of the `Collegiate Preparatory Department' of Bluemont Central College. Rev. Washington Marlatt was chosen to fill the station. Voted that Prof. Marlatt be allowed for the first year a salary of $600." As payment of part of his salary, Mr. Marlatt was to receive an interest in Block 34 of the town of Bluemont. [90]

I. T. Goodnow was continued as financial agent in all matters belonging directly or indirectly to the college, and was instructed to use his influence toward raising means to endow the same, and C. E. Blood, W. A. McCollom, Joseph Denison, John Paulson and I. T. Goodnow were made a prudential committee with discretionary powers to act ad libitum, for the current year, in all matters pertaining to the school. [91]

The board also provided "that I. T. Goodnow, John Paulson, Joseph Denison and Washington Marlatt be a committee empowered to elect a president of Bluemont Central College, if in their wisdom it be thought advisable during the present collegiate year." [92]

At the Methodist Episcopal Conference for 1860, the committee reported as follows:

Your committee would respectfully beg leave to report that during the past year nearly ten thousand dollars have been expended in the erection of one of the finest stone buildings in Kansas, to complete and furnish which five thousand dollars more is required. Half of this amount is already secured by reliable notes, payable within eight months. To raise the balance, the trustees rely on donations in money and town lots in the city of Manhattan.

340 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

While on his Eastern trip, Professor Goodnow engaged Miss Julia A. Bailey of Gales Ferry, Conn., to go to Kansas to teach in the school .84 Miss Bailey "had been liberally educated according to New England standards, and the strength of her character was on a plane with her varied accomplishments." [85] She was an experienced and successful teacher.

During the winter of 1859-1860 Prof. I. T. Goodnow showed his interest in the school by visiting classes and exhibiting the magic lantern, and by doing many things to promote completion of the building, including tending mason in the finishing of the walls. . .

A sermon was preached in the college on January 22, 1860, by the Rev. Joseph Denison, P. E., 87 and religious exercises were held in the building practically every Sunday following, and frequently at other times.

After consulting with Messrs. Denison and Marlatt concerning the presidency of Bluemont Central College, Mr. Goodnow wrote to

340 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

In order that the enterprise thus happily begun, may have a speedy completion, as also for the purpose of endowing the institution
1. Resolved that as a Conference, we highly approve the continuation of Professor I. T. Goodnow, as agent for the present year.
The first term of the school commenced January 9th, 1860, under the charge of Rev. Washington Marlatt, A. M., as Principal, and Miss Julia A. Bailey, Assistant, and already numbers 53 pupils,-and is highly appreciated for its effectiveness in meeting the practical wants of the people: Therefore
2. Resolved, that the Presiding Officer be respectfully requested to appoint Rev. Washington Marlatt, principal of the Preparatory Department of Bluemont Central College.
Your committee would further respectfully request the appointment of C. F. DeVivaldi, Abraham Barry, Esq., Wm. A. McCollom, S. C. Pomeroy and Professor I. T. Goodnow, as trustees of the said college, for the term of three years from the first of April, A. D. 1860. [93]

Mr. Goodnow left for the East, March 21, 1860, to further the interests of Bluemont Central College, and he remained until January, 1861. His diaries show the assiduity with which he conducted this work, in which he sold lots and collected money and books for the college. His experience as a teacher had given him an acquaintance with a large number of persons, and he visited many in the interest of the school. [94]

While Mr. Goodnow was in the East, Mr. Marlatt bore the burden of managing the school, and superintending the work of completing the college building. The school was small the spring term and Miss Bailey was rather discouraged. Incompetent workmen and defective building materials, and inconvenient conditions were constant worries to Mr. Marlatt. [95]

It is not surprising that the magnitude of the enterprise, with the difficulties of attaining success under such primitive conditions should have led to speculations concerning possible relief. Mr. Marlatt wrote as follows: Houston wants to know if we and all concerned won't be willing to give the college, with all the land etc., etc. belonging to it, to the State, provided the legislature would locate the State University here. What say you to it? He thinks we ought to be properly prepared, in case we were willing, when the matter comes up before the legislature, to make some definite proposition. Werter B. Davis was favorably impressed with the college site, building etc. [98]

Prospects for the third term of the school were not bright, and the

WILLARD: BLUEMONT CENTRAL COLLEGE 341

opening was deferred to September 24, 1860. Mr. Marlatt in October wrote: "The school is still small. I shall not be in it much this term, as the proceeds will barely pay Miss B. a living price. Miss B. and Judge Westover's daughter occupy the south room upstairs and board with Mr. Blake." [97]

At a meeting of the prudential committee, Professor Marlatt being called in made a statement, and the committee took action as follows

$$The school numbers but fifteen students. The labor of teaching is great enough for two persons, while the income is barely sufficient to pay the board of one. Wherefore be it resolved, 1. That Miss Bailey have permission to furnish a table for herself and one or more students in a room in the college during the ensuing term. 2. That Rev. J. Denison and Prof. Marlatt have the sanction of the committee in visiting the states for the purpose of raising funds for the support of the college. [98]

In November, Mr. Goodnow shipped four boxes of books from the East to the college. He also, with the assistance of L. Fish, persuaded Joseph Ingalls, of Swampscott, Mass., to subscribe $250 for the purchase of a bell for the college. [99] Miss Harriet Parkerson stated to the writer that Mr. Ingalls was not in the habit of making contributions to public enterprises, and that Mr. Goodnow as part of his persuasion promised Mr. Ingalls that his name should be engraved on the bell. The name and the fact of the donation were so engraved, and the bell now rings for the regular duties of Kansas State College. It is one of Meneely's best, and has a very fine tone. The letters of Principal Marlatt to Professor Goodnow during the autumn of 1860, show that the school was small, and that it was left almost entirely to the care of Miss Bailey. He wrote:

This is a rainy day, and I have decided to spend the afternoon indoor, and see how the school progresses, and note the behavior of the boys. The school is small enough to be good. The boys miss me sadly. They need a sound thrashing (some of them) every day, and Miss B. is entirely too kind of heart to do them that justice they so richly deserve. . . [100]

Work toward completion of the building was continued by Messrs. Brous and Bloss. [101] Some rooms were rented to a family, much to the displeasure of Mr. Marlatt, who wrote:

The vipers you and Bro. Denison admitted to the College, I opposed it, have been aiming a blow at the institution. I in the persons of the teachers

342 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

expect to bruise the serpents' heads in the fullness of time. Explanations when you arrive. [102]
The College has suffered not a little in public esteem by the admission of a private family within its walls. [103]

Although Mr. Marlatt was opposed to admitting a family to the building, his own residence there was in another category. He wrote:

We are having a vacation. Miss B. is in town visiting for a week past. I have moved into the south room on the "Ground floor," not of King Solomon's temple, 'but this temple of learning prospectively. I am fixed off real cozily. Madam Huntress says there is but one thing lacking l . . . The next term will open on the 24th and continue till conference. There will be twenty or thirty in attendance. . . [104]

In a letter to Mrs. Goodnow, Professor Goodnow wrote: "I have packed up for Kansas 7 boxes of books, 3 boxes of apparatus, and 2 clocks for the college chapel and study room. We shall have one of the finest libraries west of the Missouri River." [105]

The seed planted by S. D. Houston germinated, and shortly after the return of Professor Goodnow the board of trustees met and took action recorded as follows: Trustees of Bluemont Central College Association met at the college as per call of the President of the Board to take into consideration the propriety of offering this institution to the State on condition that the Legislative Assembly make it the State University. . . . A quorum being present, after mature consideration it was voted to appoint a committee of five to put the whole matter in proper shape to be laid before the legislature, and report the same at the next meeting of the Board. I. T. Goodnow, J. Denison, J. W. Robinson, C. E. Blood and Washington Marlatt were the men appointed as said committee. The first named as chairman. On motion J. W. Robinson was requested to make a drawing of the College Buildings and surroundings. [106]

At a subsequent meeting, the committee offered the following report:

Resolved by the Trustees of Bluemont Central College Association that we donate to the State of Kansas our College Building, library and apparatus together with one hundred and twenty (120) acres, more or less, of land contiguous as a College site, on condition that the legislature locate here permanently the State University. [107]

At this point C. F. De Vivaldi, publisher, of the local paper, the Western Kansas Express, and a member of the board, asked for

WILLARD: BLUEMONT CENTRAL COLLEGE 343

$225 to assist him with his paper, and a committee was appointed to consider his request. As a result, Mr. De Vivaldi was given certain lots with the condition that if Bluemont Central College did not become the state university they should be deeded back to the college. It did not, but he did not return the lots or their value. [108]

The Minutes of the Kansas Annual Conference for 1861 contain some interesting data, as follows:

Your Committee [on education] would report, that the College Edifice is now completed at a cost of $18,000, that a library and apparatus have been secured worth $2,000. While its real estate is valued at $5,000. Total cash valuation $25,000. The outstanding claims against the College amount to $2,000.
Despite the many discouragements consequent upon a failure of crops in our midst, the school has been kept in active operation during the past Conference year. In view of these facts and to meet the future wants of the institution, be it Resolved, That the Conference renew the appointment of Prof. I. T. Goodnow as financial agent, with authority to appoint a substitute.
Resolved, That S. D. Houston, C. C. Blood, James Humphrey, Washington Marlatt and Joseph Denison, be appointed Trustees.
Resolved, That in accordance with the request of the Trustees, the President of this Conference be respectfully requested to re-appoint Rev. Washington Marlatt, A. M., Principal of the Preparatory Department of Bluemont Central College 100 The town of Manhattan was interested in having Bluemont Central College become the state university and a meeting of the Manhattan City Council was called for March 23, 1861, for the purpose of taking "into consideration the propriety and expediency of making an appropriation to defray the expense of two delegates to the State Legislature, who shall work to secure the location of the State University at Manhattan," and "on motion of A. Griffin, an appropriation of one hundred dollars was made to defray the expenses of Lobby members at the Capital, for the purpose of securing the location of the State University at Manhattan." [110]

The entries in the diary of Professor Goodnow during the months of April and May, 1861, record his work with members of the legislature in attempting to get the university located at Manhattan. In the Western Kansas Express in a letter signed "E. X." and headed "From our Special Correspondent," the following paragraph occurs:

The bill locating the State University at Manhattan is introduced into the House, but meets with considerable opposition arising not so much from a de

344 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

sire to compete with the generous offers of the Trustees of Bluemont College, as from other hidden causes; an opposition too that may not be shown in the vote on the bill but which really exists. The Western members, without exception, show a hearty good will towards the measure, and Manhattan owes much to the generous cooperation of the gentlemen from Pottawatomie and Wabaunsee Counties in this matter. [111]

In spite of opposition, the bill accepting the offer of the Bluemont Central College property for the state of Kansas as a site for the state university passed the house by a vote of 43 to 19, and the senate by a vote of 17 to 8. This was after ample discussion, and a visit to the college by a committee of the legislature. [112]

The Express published a restrained account of the favorable action of the legislature, but followed it by the later news that Governor Robinson had vetoed the bill.

THE STATE UNIVERSITY

This important institution is located by the State Legislature at Manhattan. The trustees of the Bluemont College have tendered their building and grounds together with the library and apparatus to the State for the benefit of the University. To those who have seen this institution we need not say that this is a most magnificent offer, and the Legislature has acted wisely in accepting the grant and establishing in our beautiful and growing city the State University. VETOED.-Since writing the above we have learned through the Topeka Record, that the bill locating the University at Manhattan has been returned to the Legislature by the Governor without his signature. The Governor assigns several feeble reasons for this act, which merely amount to the fact that he wants to put in a bid himself at a future time. [113]

Professor Goodnow's diary shows that he maintained a concrete interest in the welfare of the school to the extent of doing much manual labor for it, alone or assisting others in such work. On August 9 he recorded having a talk with Principal Marlatt on the school, and that he was going to take a circuit, and a new teacher would be necessary. [114]

At a meeting of the trustees of Bluemont Central College, action was taken as follows:

The office of Principal being declared vacant, on motion Prof. I. T. Goodnow chosen to fill that station till April 1st, 1862, with authority to employ an assistant. The remuneration of Principal and Assistant together with all inci

WILLARD: BLUEMONT CENTRAL COLLEGE 345

dental expenses in keeping up the school be the tuition of the pupils in attendance. [115]

Principal Goodnow offered Mr. Marlatt a teacher's place, but he declined it, and Miss Nancy Bemis was engaged as assistant teacher in the school."' The school opened October 8 with sixteen pupils, and at least twelve enrolled later. Professor Goodnow taught classes, and made benches and a desk for the school. He had a class in algebra, and one in astronomy. He fitted up a separate recitation room for himself. The college bell arrived December 10, and was hung on the 14th. The school term closed December 21, 1861. [117]

Principal Goodnow opened the winter term of the school with 40 pupils. Miss Nancy L. Bemis and the Rev. Robert L. Harford were his assistants. Mr. Goodnow was the member of the house from his legislative district, and went to Topeka soon after the beginning of the winter term of the school, and renewed his efforts to get the university located at Manhattan. With Davies Wilson he drew up a university bill which was introduced in the house January 20, 1862. [118]

Representative Goodnow carried on an active campaign in behalf of the bill to locate the university at Manhattan, but was handicapped by a party contest concerning the eligibility of certain men to serve as senators. After a debate in committee of the whole, the committee recommended that the university be located at Manhattan. Lawrence, Emporia and Tecumseh were also considered. The bill was passed by the house the next day, February 18, 1862, by a vote of 45 to 16. [119] The trouble was in the senate, where the bill was finally defeated by a vote of 11 to 12. [120]

The Methodist conference minutes for 1862 include the following important details of information:

Your Committee [on education] beg leave to report Bluemont Central College in a prosperous condition. During the past Conference year, a school of such grade as the wants of the country required, has been in successful) operation. Now that a commodious edifice has been erected, and a choice library and philosophical apparatus procured, the Joint-Board hope to be able, soon to inaugurate a regular collegiate department, and thus make the Institution a Col

346 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

lege in fact, in which the youth of our land may receive that mental and moral training, necessary to fit them for the practical duties of life.-Therefore, Resolved,
First, That, as a Conference, we give to Bluemont Central College our cordial support.
Second, That James Lawrence and Robert L. Harford be appointed as a Visiting Committee and Members of the Joint-Board.
Third, That John Pipher, Welcome Wells, Davies Wilson, T. H. Mudge, and B. F. Fullington, be appointed Trustees for three years, from the 1st of April, A. D., 1862. [121]

At the end of the winter term of the school, Principal Goodnow noted: "Miss B.-well tried, & tired." She had been carrying the burden alone most of the time, as Mr. Goodnow was in the legislature. Of the closing exercises, March 20, the local paper reported:

BLUE MONT COLLEGE: The close of the winter term of this Institution, which occurred last Thursday, was attended with literary exercises by the students. We are informed that the numerous exercises, which were participated in by most of the students, disclosed a degree of progress and diligent study, eminently gratifying to the friends and visitors of the school. The spring term commences on the 10th of April. Prof. Goodnow, under whose superintendence ,the college has been so signally successful, will continue to watch over its interests. [122]

On March 29, 1862, the trustees of Bluemont Central College met for the annual meeting, but a quorum was not present, and an adjournment was taken to June 26, 1862. The resident trustees resolved themselves into a prudential committee, under the provision of section 10 of the constitution. The committee voted that the college remain in charge of I. T. Goodnow with the title of acting president. Duplicate volumes in the library were sold to Professor Good now for $140. The Rev. Washington Marlatt was permitted to retain certain land within the Bluemont townsite, "in consideration of sacrifices made by him in behalf of the college." Messrs. Denison, Goodnow, Humphrey and Marlatt were appointed to report a course of study at the next meeting of the board. Mr. Humphrey was appointed to audit the treasurer's account and to report at the next meeting. However, the adjourned meeting was not held June 26. [123]

The spring term of 1862 opened April 10 with 25 pupils. Miss Mary Hubbard was to commence teaching April 14, and presumably did so, as this is the only reference to the term's work found in the Goodnow diary. [124]

WILLARD: BLUEMONT CENTRAL COLLEGE 347

At the first meeting of District No. 7, Riley county, a committee was appointed to report in one week "the best course to pursue to have a school commenced in the district as soon as possible, what will be the probable cost of a schoolhouse, and whether it will be advisable to select a site and build immediately." [125] The committee reported adversely in respect to building a schoolhouse, and submitted a proposition from "the College Company" to teach the district school for the first term of three months. The proposition was accepted. It provided that the college should teach the district pupils for a term from September 3 to December 17, 1862, and receive as payment a tax of one-fourth of one percent on the taxable property of the district, and any state money that might be apportioned to the district. If nothing should be received from the state, the pupils were to be assessed equitably to make up the deficiency. The contract was signed September 1, 1862, by "Ambrose Todd, District Clerk," and "Isaac T. Goodnow, President Bluemont College." [126]

In the summer of 1862, it was announced in the college advertisement that "By applying soon a half dozen young ladies can be accommodated in the College Building in the family of Mr. Ells [Eells?]." [127] Mr. Goodnow noted that "Mr. Brous moved into the college." [128]

From these two items it appears that at least two families were residing in the college building at that time.

Albert Todd, a student in 1862, recalled:

In the southwest room on the ground floor of that old stone building on the hill, a district school was conducted by Miss Bemis, a sister of . . . Mrs. Thomas C. Wells. Miss Bemis was my teacher for but one term. I was then out of school for nearly a year, when I again attended a district school in the same room, the teacher now being Miss Belle Haines. . . [129]

This second experience was after the building had been transferred to the state for use by the Kansas State Agricultural College. In the catalogue of that institution for 1863-1864, Miss Belle M. Haines is listed in the faculty as "Assistant Teacher in the Preparatory Department." At a meeting of the school district a contract was authorized to have the pupils of the district taught by the college

348 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

for a winter term of three months for $130. This contract was confirmed by the board of regents of the college. [130]

It is remarkable that the records of the Bluemont Central College Association contain no reference to the proceedings incident to offering the Bluemont building and land to the state to become the site of the State Agricultural College. Professor Goodnow was elected to the office of State Superintendent of Public Instruction November 7, 1862, and took office in January, 1863. He was therefore in Topeka and in position to keep an eye on legislation concerning education. The Morrill act of congress providing grants of land for the endowment of agricultural colleges was signed by Abraham Lincoln, July 2, 1862. This fact did not escape the notice of the Bluemont college group.

Professor Goodnow's diary shows that during the fall of 1862 he continued to do various mechanical jobs to better the condition of the college building and its surroundings. Later, during the session of the legislature, he made many cryptic entries which indicate that a conflict was going on involving Lawrence, Manhattan and Em poria. At first he seemed still to harbor the hope that the university could be obtained for Manhattan, but later was satisfied by getting the agricultural college. The bill locating it at Manhattan passed both houses by unanimous votes. "One of the 7 wonders of Kansas legislation!" [131]

Superintendent Goodnow at once turned his attention to drawing up a bill for the government of the agricultural college. This was Sassed "triumphantly." 132 The minutes of the Bluemont Central College Association include nothing after the date March 29, 1862, until March 5, 1863, when a meeting of the prudential committee was held. At this meeting: On motion it was recommended that Rev. Joseph Denison be put in nomination as President of Bluemont Central College. On motion it was requested of the Presiding Bishop of the Kansas M. E. Conference, to be held in Lawrence March the 11th, 1863, be requested to appoint the Rev. J. Denison to the Presidency of Bluemont Central College 133 As the building, library, and apparatus of Bluemont Central College had been promised to the state of Kansas, this action was probably intended to give Mr. Denison some prestige as a candidate

WILLARD: BLUEMONT CENTRAL COLLEGE 349

for the presidency of the Kansas State Agricultural College. The record of the conference held March 11-16, 1863, includes the following item among the appointments for the Manhattan district: "J. Denison, President of Bluemont College, member of Manhattan Quarterly Conference." [134]

At this conference the committee on education took no cognizance of the forthcoming transfer of the Bluemont Central College to the state of Kansas, but reported as follows:

Your committee would report Bluemont Central College as having been in successful operation during the past Conference year, under the superintendence of Professor R. L. Harford, assisted by Miss Mary Hubbard and Miss V[N.] L. Bemis. The school has continued to increase in numbers and influence, fully meeting the present wants of the community, in affording the youth a means of mental and moral development.
The whole number of students for the year has been seventy-five. Your committee recommend the appointment of the following as a Visiting Committee for the present year: Revs. J. Lawrence, L. B. Dennis, J. A. Woodburn.
Trustees, for three years from the 1st of April, A. D., 1863: I. T. Goodnow, S. C. Pomeroy, Wm. A. McCollom, A. Barry, Wm. J. Kermott.
For two years: R. L. Harford. For one year: S. V. Lee. [135]

The trustees of Bluemont Central College Association met April 16, 1863, and concurred in the actions of the prudential committee, March 29, 1862, and March 5, 1863. The following motions are among those passed:

On motion the President of the College be requested to have the college building vacated of families within one week, and put in as good repair as possible, preparatory to its being delivered over to the State as an Agricultural School, etc.
On motion the President and Secretary be authorized to make a deed of one hundred acres of land, the college building, etc., etc., to the State of Kansas as per act of her legislature at its last session and that it be signed by at least a majority of the present Board of Trustees of the B. C. C. Association. On motion Prof. I. T. Goodnow was continued as agent with discretionary power to dispose of any part of the property, or real estate of the association necessary to meet pressing demands as they may arise from time to time.

The auditing committee gave the following report, viz.: "This certifies that I have this day examined the accounts of Isaac T. Goodnow agent of the Trustees of Bluemont Central College Association and find them to be correct. (Signed) WM. A. MCCOLLOM." [136]

A list of the members of the board of trustees was appended.

350 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

I. T. Goodnow was president and Washington Marlatt secretary of the board. Professor Goodnow's diary contains the following entries: "Miss Bemis at tea, settled her account." 137 (This may indicate that her connection with the school was terminated.) "Judge Woodworth & Prof. Schnebley with us last night." [138] "School opened. 28 scholars." [139] This is the last direct reference to the school extant. Was Professor Schnebly the teacher? Was Mr. Harford also a teacher? After an absence from Manhattan of three weeks on official visits, Superintendent Goodnow notes on his return that he had a "call from Schnebley & Harford" and the next day he "visited with Schnebley." [140] If Professor Schnebly was the teacher that term he constituted an instructional link between Bluemont Central College and Kansas State Agricultural College, as he was a member of the first faculty of the latter institution, which opened September 2, 1863. [141]

There are no records extant showing with any completeness the names of those who attended Bluemont Central College nor is there any record of the subjects taught. Most of the teaching was elementary work with the children of the vicinity, but a few received instruction in algebra and Latin. There was no academic connection between Bluemont Central College and the Kansas State Agricultural College to which the Bluemont building and one-hundred acres of land were given.

The transfer of the Bluemont Central College building with the 100 acres of land was by a deed dated June 10, 1863, but the formal delivery was made July 2, when the deed was acknowledged, and the event made a feature of the celebration of Independence day. There was a large attendance and everybody had a good time. A dinner was served in the chapel on the third floor of the college building, at which 20 toasts were offered. Speeches were made in response to 12 of these .142 Superintendent Goodnow wrote: "Regents' Dinner at College. Multitudinous speeches, made two short ones myself. McCullom, Capt. Rust & Gilchrist stopped with me leer night. Held a session of Regents, discussed important points." 143

WILLARD: BLUEMONT CENTRAL COLLEGE 351

This explains why the first recorded minutes of the regents of Kansas State Agricultural College refer to the meeting as an "adjourned" one. [144]

As not all the property of the Bluemont Central College Association was conveyed to the state, annual meetings were held at the call of the president in 1864 and 1865, at which action was taken in respect to property, and trustees were elected. J. Denison was made secretary of the board in 1864 instead of W. Marlatt, and in 1865 Mr. Goodnow resigned as president and John Pipher was elected. [145]

Reports of the business of the association were made to the Methodist Episcopal Conferences held in 1864 and 1865. The one for 1864 follows:

The Trustees of the "Bluemont Central College Association," empowered by an act of the State Legislature of Kansas, have given to the State the College building, library, apparatus, and one hundred (100) acres of land, on consideration of the institution being endowed with 90,000 acres of land donated to the State, by act of Congress, approved July 2d, A. D., 1862.
The institution, as the "Kansas State Agricultural College," is already on its career of usefulness.
The above named Board of Trustees are still a chartered Board, possessing property as such, with liabilities and unfinished business. They hold their relations to Conference, awaiting opportunity for further usefulness in the cause of education. We would recommend the appointment of the following named persons Trustees for the term of three years, from 1st of April, 1864: T. D. Huston [S. D. Houston], J. Denison, W. Marlatt, J. Kuntroll [Kimball], S. V. Lee. [146]

The minutes of the conference of 1865 repeat the minutes of 1864 concerning Bluemont Central College, but correct errors in the names of the trustees, and add the following:

Your committee would recommend the appointment of Rev. J. Denison to the Presidency of the Kansas State Agricultural College, as the regents of said institution have elected him to said Presidency. [As a member of the conference, Mr. Denison's activities were subject to the designation or approval of the conference.]
Your committee would also recommend the adoption of the following resolution Resolved, That while as a Conference we will give our sympathy and patronage to the building up of institutions of learning, in the bounds of our Conference, we will in no case become financially responsible for any of them. [147]

352 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

No reports of the association were made to later conferences, and the records of the conferences show that no reports of the Kansas State Agricultural College were made to them, though statements to the contrary have been published .148 The conferences have never attempted to control Kansas State College. The founders of Bluemont Central College were scarcely represented on the board of regents of the agricultural college. The only connection of consequence was the appointment of Joseph Denison to be president, and this was not dictated or suggested by the conference. [149]

In securing the location at Manhattan of the agricultural college, the founders of Bluemont Central College must have had a sense of success in respect to having a college at Manhattan, that was far beyond their original expectations. The labor and sacrifices made had received a rich reward. The endowment to be derived from the sale of 90,000 acres of land seemed sufficient to meet the needs of the college for all time. They never suspected that the college would so develop that, within the lifetime of persons then living, the income from that endowment would be a comparatively trivial part of its total requirements.

The first years of the use of the Bluemont building by the agricultural college demonstrated that a boarding hall was a necessity, because of the fact that the location of the college was three miles from Manhattan, and farm homes in the vicinity could accommodate only a few students. Furthermore, the land connected with the building was poorly adapted to the agricultural needs of the college. A boarding hall was built which in a measure met the first difficulty, and Manhattan township provided, by a bond issue in 1871, means for the purchase of 160 acres of better farm land adjacent to the townsite of Manhattan. Upon this farm, one wing of an elaborately planned barn was erected in 1872-1873. The Bluemont structure was poorly built, although it received high contemporaneous praise.

The Rev. John A. Anderson succeeded the Rev. Joseph Denison as president of the agricultural college in September, 1873, and soon became convinced that the cattle had better quarters than the students. He therefore obtained authority and funds from the legislature of 1875 to transform the barn into a classroom building. At the same time a building was provided for instruction in industrial arts. In the summer of 1875, the college work was transferred to the new

[Pictures of the founders of Bluemont College.]

WILLARD: BLUEMONT CENTRAL COLLEGE 353

site. [150] Such use as was feasible was made of the old college farm and the buildings on it, but that does not belong to this account. The regents of the college "ordered that Professor Shelton should hereafter assume entire charge of the Bluemont College property . . . ," and "that the best policy to pursue with the land under cultivation is to rent out as much as possible, and care for the balance with as little expense as is practicable." [151] E. M. Shelton was the professor of agriculture.

Shortly after college teaching was transferred to the new campus, rooms in the Bluemont building were offered for rent. "A few Students can rent rooms in the old College building at low rates. Apply to Major N. A. Adams, Secretary." [152] "Those desiring to board themselves can obtain rooms in the old College building." [153] The board of regents voted "That Professor Ward be authorized to fit up rooms in the old Bluemont College building as needed for students." [154]

That the regents of Kansas State Agricultural College were thinking of selling the property is shown by certain minutes. "Regent Redden was requested to inquire into the rights of the K. S. A. College to the Bluemont College property, and present a report at the next meeting of the regents." 155 "Regent Redden reports that he has examined the question of the title to the Bluemont College property, and is of the opinion that said property can only be used for purposes connected with the College, and that we have no right to sell or dispose of said property, which report was accepted and adopted." [156]

The income of the agricultural college was low at that period, and the old site was uncared-for to a certain extent, especially the area not actually in cultivation. On July 7, 1880, the prudential committee of Bluemont Central College Association met at the home of I. T. Goodnow. Those present were John Pipher, Washington Marlatt, Isaac T. Goodnow, Joseph Denison and James Humphrey.

The following statement and resolution were adopted:

The situation of the old college building & premises having been freely discussed, and it being manifest that the buildings are going to waste, and that

354 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

the land is seeded down with cuckle & sand burrs, Mexican thistles & other noxious weeds, & has become a nuisance in disseminating the same over neighboring farms, & that the whole property is really a disadvantage to the practical working of the Agricultural College, and furthermore believing that by the removal of the College proper, to a new location, the old college building & lands are forfeited. Therefore, Resolved that a committee consisting of James Humphrey, John Pipher, Washington Marlatt & Isaac T. Goodnow be appointed to wait on the Board of Regents at their August meeting, to suggest to them the propriety of using their influence with the Legislature to deed the original 100 acres back to the "Bluemont College Association." [157]

A meeting of the board of trustees was called for January 18, 1881, but a quorum not being present, an adjournment was taken to January 27, 1881.15$ The board met in accordance with adjournment; a quorum was present, and business was transacted, a part of which was recorded as follows:

Mr. Humphrey, chairman, reported verbally an interview held with the Regents of the Agricultural College without results.
After discussion it was moved by Washington Marlatt & seconded by I. T. Goodnow that James Humphrey be authorized by this Board to institute proper and appropriate proceedings in the court having jurisdiction to recover to the association the possession of the property & real estate heretofore conveyed to the State of Kansas for the Agricultural College and which premises & property were conveyed to the State by deed of June 10, 1863 & which property has reverted to the Bluemont Central College Association, the Grantor, the said property not being used for the purpose and uses named in the deed of conveyance. The resolution was passed. [159]

This is from the final minutes of the trustees of the Bluemont Central College Association. Legal action was instituted, the only records of which available to the writer are those published in The Industrialist, and the Third Biennial Report of the college, as follows:

Suit in ejectment was brought in the district court in Riley county against the Board by former members of the Bluemont Central College Association, for the recovery of the property deeded to the State in 1863, on the location of the College at Manhattan. Counsel was employed to represent the Board in this suit, and also in a case in quo warranto in the Supreme Court, incidental to defense in the ejectment suit. [160]

In the quo warranto case of the College against the "Bluemont College Association," the Supreme Court decided in favor of the College. The court holds that the "Bluemont College Association" has no legal existence. [161] That long-pending case regarding the title to the old College property, which has been in court nearly two years, was, on Thursday, decided by Judge

WILLARD: BLUEMONT CENTRAL COLLEGE

Martin in favor of the College. This ought, and probably will, settle the matter. We hope, now that the property is beyond dispute, to be able to chronicle many useful improvements in this valuable property. [162]

It is not possible at this date to determine what judgment, feelings or motives may have actuated the members of the board of regents of Kansas State Agricultural College, but at the June meeting, 1883, "Regent Krohn moved that the old college building be sold to the highest bidder, all material and rubbish to be removed within six months of the time of sale, which motion prevailed." 163 The fate of the Old College building is sealed. It is to be torn down, and from its walls a humbler, but withal useful structure, no less, in fact, than a stone wall on two sides of the eastern twenty acres of the Old College farm, is to be constructed. The contract has been let to Mr. Howard, and the work will go on at once. We sympathize, heartily, with that large number of people who associate with this old building many pleasant, almost sacred, memories, but these friends must bear in mind that the College and community have outgrown this venerable structure which has so long outlived its usefulness, that it has become an eyesore, and a nuisance which cannot be tolerated longer.164

The building committee of the board of regents of the college reported At the August meeting an arrangement was made for the disposal of the old College building by sale according to the terms fixed by the Board.

The sale of the old College building to C. G. Howard for $221.00 was approved, and arrangements were made for the construction of a stone wall on two sides of the twenty-acre field just east of the old College building. [165]

Mr. Howard razed the old college building so completely that it is not possible now to locate the exact spot which its foundation occupied. It was somewhat northeast of the old well which is still giving excellent service. Mr. Howard sold some of the material from the building, and used some himself. He used the cut stone cornerstones in constructing an addition to his home, and much of the lumber in a barn. As the city of Manhattan has developed, these have disappeared. As noted previously the ordinary stone was used by the college in erecting a wall on two sides of the twenty-acre tract across the highway east of the site of the building. [166]

In the disposition of the material from the old college building, the Rev. Washington Marlatt obtained stone which he used in the

356 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

erection of a farm barn. The old building had in its front gable, an arch carrying the name Bluemont College, a stone for each letter. Mr. Marlatt obtained this arch, and placed it over the driveway at the front of the barn. The Marlatt farm was adjacent to the college farm, and in 1918, when additional land was purchased for the college, the Marlatt farm was part of that obtained. Some years later, it was represented to the president that it was hardly fitting for the college to use this historic arch in such a capacity. The college library building was under construction at that time, and it was decided to build the arch into the wall of that structure. It was placed in one of the interior walls of the top story, which as planned is an exhibition room. The arch thus constitutes a permanent historical exhibit. Some other pieces of cut stone from the old building are also parts of the installation. They had been placed by Mr. Howard in his residence. That was in process of removal at about the same time, and friends of the college saved them from destruction. Prominent among these were Professors R. R. Price and G. H. Failyer.

When the cornerstone of the Bluemont College building was laid, a number of documents were placed in a cavity in it. [167] When the building was to be wrecked, Judge F. G. Adams, secretary of the State Historical Society, requested "that the contents of the cornerstone be deposited with said Society," but the articles "were pronounced worthless from exposure to water as they lay in the stone." [161]

The Riley County Historical Society and the Polly Ogden chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution erected a monument near the site of the Bluemont building. This consists of a granite glacial drift boulder from Pottawatomie county weighing more than two tons, to which a bronze tablet is attached bearing the following inscription: "Site of Bluemont College, Established February 3, 1858, by Bluemont Central College Association. Founded by Joseph Denison, Isaac Goodnow, S. D. Houston, John Kimball, G. S. Park, Washington Marlatt. Building Erected 1859. Farm and Building Donated to State of Kansas, February 3, 1863. Site of Kansas State Agricultural College 1863-1875. Erected by Polly Ogden chapter D. A. R., Riley County Historical Society."

The monument, was unveiled November 27, 1926, with suitable dedicatory ceremonies. Several grandchildren of the founders were present. The principal address was given by Prof. G. H. Failyer. Shorter speeches were made by Judge C. A. Kimball, Mrs. Burr Ozment and Pres. F. D. Farrell.169

To the lover of monuments that mark the progress of mankind, especially when this is made by surmounting serious obstacles, it must always be a source of regret that the old Bluemont building was not maintained in decent repair as a memorial to the ideals, vision, courage and persistence of the pioneers of Kansas, and as concrete evidence of the smallness of the beginning of Kansas State College.

Notes

I. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.-The late Miss Harriet Parkerson preserved for many years the diaries of Prof. 1. T. Goodnow, letters to him, the official record of the Bluemont Central College Association, and other valuable material. She gave the record book to Kansas State College some years ago. Mrs. Mary C. Payne became much interested in local history, and had copies made of Professor Goodnow's diaries, and also had a series of letters of the Rev. Washington Marlatt to Mr. Goodnow copied. Professor Goodnow's diaries have been given to the Kansas Historical Society, and one of the carbon copies of the transcript was given to the Riley County Historical Society, and has been used in preparing this paper. Some valuable points have been obtained from the letters of Mr. Marlatt to Doctor Goodnow.
Professor Goodnow made two scrapbooks which contain some articles concerning Bluemont Central College and Kansas State College. These scrapbooks were given to Kansas State College through the kind offices of Mrs. Payne, and the present author here testifies to the debt of gratitude which he and the public owe to Mrs. Payne because of her interest in bringing these various materials to light. For copies of paragraphs referring to Bluemont Central College printed in the Minutes of the Kansas-Nebraska, and the Kansas conferences of the Methodist Episcopal Church, the author is indebted to Miss Helen M. McFarland, librarian of the Kansas Historical Society, and Mrs. Marcella Vincent, secretary to the president of Baker University.
Dr. Charles L. Marlatt of Washington, D. C., a son of the Rev. Washington Marlatt, assembled a considerable body of the writings of his father, and of materials concerning enterprises with which he was identified. Doctor Marlatt gave a copy of his compilation to Kansas State College, and in references made to it in this paper it is designated as the "Marlatt Collection." Miss Harriet Parkerson had possession of the earliest minutes of the Manhattan Town Association, and kindly permitted this author to copy them. Mrs. Abbie Browning Whitney has possession of the earliest minutes of School District No. 7 of Riley county, and through her courtesy the author was permitted to copy them. Mrs. Ella Child Carroll, one of our oldest citizens, has assisted in giving information and confirmation of several points involved in this article. The author gratefully acknowledges his indebtedness to each of these and to other friends. Without the information which they Supplied the preparation of this paper in its complete form would have been impossible.
2. "Records of the Manhattan Town Association," p. 62.
3. Ibid., p. 62.
4. Kansas Historical Collections, v. IV, pp. 247, 245.
5. Ibid., p. 247. 6. Ibid., p. 248.
7. "Minutes," Manhattan Town Association, p. 9.
8. Ibid., p. 17.
9. Ibid., pp. 1, 63.
10. Ibid., p. 63.
11. Ibid., pp. 28-31.
12. "History of Manhattan Institute," a lecture by W. Marlatt.-Marlatt Collection.
13. Laws of the Territory of Kansas, 1857, p. 121.
14. Goodnow diary, Sunday, February 8, 1857.
15. Ibid., February 14, 1857.
16. Ibid., March 24, 1857.
17. Ibid., March 31, 1857.
18. Ibid., April 1, 1857.
19. Ibid., April 2, 3, 5, 7, 8, 1857.
20. "Minutes of Bluemont Central College Association," p. 10.
21. Goodnow diary, April 15, 17, 18, 20, 1857.
22. "Kansas Reminiscences," by W. Marlatt, May 2, 1874.-Marlatt Collection.
23. Minutes of the Kansas & Nebraska Annual Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church, Held at Nebraska City, N. T., April 16th, 1857, p. 14.
24. Introduction to "Minutes," Bluemont Central College Association, p. 10.
25. "Minutes," ibid., April 27, 1857, p. 11.
26. Notations made by W. Marlatt but not put into the official record.-Marlatt Collection.
27. Goodnow diary, April 21, October 27, 31, 1857.
28. Ibid., November 21, 27, 28, 30, 1857.
29. "Reminiscences of the 'Beginnings,' " address by W. Marlatt in The Industrialist, Manhattan, January 12, 1895, p. 71.
30. "Minutes," Bluemont Central College Association, December 21, 1857, p. 12.
31. Ibid.
32. Ibid.
33. Goodnow diary, December 21, 1857.
34. Ibid., December 25, 1857.
35. Ibid., January 6, 12, 23, 26, 28, 29, 1858.
36. Ibid., February 1, 1858.
37. Ibid., February 4-6, 1858.
38. Marlatt address, Industrialist, January 12, 1895, p. 71.
39. Private Laws of the Territory of Kansas, 1858, pp. 71-91.
40. Ibid., pp. 75, 76.
41. G. H. Failyer and William Ulrich, The Nationalist, Manhattan, April 16, 1875.
42. Manhattan Nationalist, July 17, 1874, quoting a correspondent of the Hollidaysburg (Pa.) Standard.
43. Harriet Parkerson in Log Cabin Days (Riley County Historical Society, 1929), p. 22.
44. Kansas and Kansans (Chicago, 1918), by W. E. Connelley, p. 1853, and Dr. C. L. Marlatt.
45. Kansas and Kansans, p. 2445.
46. Kansas Historical Collections, v. XII, p. 427.
47. Semi-Centennial, Wabaunsee Congregational Church (June 27-28, 1907), p. 43.
48. Kansas Historical Collections, v. V, p. 198.
49. Kansas Historical Quarterly, v. XII, p. 126.
50. Ibid., p. 128.
51. Unidentified clipping in °Goodnow Scrapbook. No. I," pp. 35, 41, 42.
52. Marlatt's "Reminiscences of the 'Beginnings,' " The Industrialist, January 12, 1895, p. 71.
53. "Minutes," Bluemont Central College Association, February 26, 1858, p. 13.
54. Ibid.
55. Minutes of the Kansas and Nebraska Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church Held at Topeka, Kansas Territory, April 15-19, 1858, p. 9.
56. "Minutes," Bluemont Central College Association, May 19, 1858, p. 14.
57. Ibid., p. 6.
58. Ibid., p. 14.
59. Ibid., May 81, 1858, p. 15.
60. Ibid.
61. Ibid., October 20, 1858, p. 17, and Goodnow diary, October 20, 1858.
62. Goodnow diary, November 30, 1858, to January 31, 1869.
63. Ibid., April 28, 1859, and letter of W. Marlatt to I. T. Goodnow, April 20, 1860.
64. "Minutes," Bluemont Central College Association, May 81, 1858, p. 15, and February 15, 1859, p. 18.
65. Minutes of the Fourth Session of the Kansas and Nebraska Annual Conference, of the Methodist E. Church, Held at Omaha, Nebraska, April 14-18, 1859, p. 15.
66. Ibid., p. 17.
67. Goodnow diary, March 2, 8, 15, 16, 18, 19, 24, 25, 27, 28, 30, 31, April 5, 9, 11, 12, 23, 26, 28, 1859.
68. Ibid., May 3-7, 1859.
69. Letter of W. Marlatt to I. T. Goodnow, May 16, 1859.
70. Wells, T. C., "Letters of a Kansas Pioneer," Kansas Historical Quarterly, v. V, p. 399.
71. Gaeddert, G. R., "First Newspapers in Kansas Counties," in ibid., v. V, p. 27.
72. Letter of W. Marlatt to I. T. Goodnow, August 6, 1859.
73. Letter of J. C. Christensen to J. T. Willard, February 17, 1938.
74. Letter of W. Marlatt to I. T. Goodnow, August 6, 1859.
75. Ibid., August 10, 1859. 76. Ibid., August 6, 1859.
77. Ibid., September 1, 1859.
78. Ibid., September 29, 1859.
79. Manhattan Express, October 1, 1859.
80. "Minutes," Bluemont Central College Association, December 28, 1859, p. 19.
81. Manhattan resscember 24, 1859.
82. Goodnow diary, January 4, 6-9, 1860.
83. Express, January 7, 1860 et seq., April 7 et seq., September 22 et seq., December 22 et seq.
84. Goodnow diary, October 6, 1859.
85. Kansas and Kansans, v. V, p, 2445.
86. Goodnow diary, January 18, 20, 26, 30, February 1, 3, 4-15, 20, 23, 26, 27, March 1, 2, 5, 7, 8, 10, 1860.
87. Ibid., January 22, 1860, and later dates.
88. Ibid., January 27, 1860.
89. "Minutes," Bluemont Central College Association, March 10, 1860, p. 20.
90. Ibid., p. 21.
91. Ibid.
92. Ibid., p. 22.
93. Minutes of the Kansas and Nebraska Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church, Held at Leavenworth, K. T., March, 1860, pp. 12, 13.
94. Goodnow diaries, March 21, 1860, to January 31, 1861.
95. Letters of Washington Marlatt to I. T. Goodnow, April 20, 28, May 21, 28, June 6, 18, and later ones.
96. Ibid., July 18, 1860.
97. Ibid., August 5, September 6, October 3, 1860.
98. "Minutes," Bluemont Central College Association, October 24, 1860, p. 28.
99. Goodnow diary, November 6, 17, 1860.
100. Marlatt to Goodnow, November 8, 1860.
101. Ibid., November 17, December 17, 1860.
102. Ibid., November 28, 1860.
103. Ibid., December 17, 1860.
104. Ibid.
105. Letter of I. T. Goodnow to Mrs. Goodnow, December 16, 1860.
106. "Minutes," Bluemont Central College Association, February 15, 1861, p. 24.
107. Ibid., February 28, 1861, p. 25.
108. Ibid., and appended note, February 28, March 2, 1861, pp. 25 and 27.
109. Minutes of the Kansas Annual Conference, of the Methodist Episcopal Church, Sixth Session, Held in Atchison, Kansas, March 21st, 1861, pp. 12, 13.
110. Western Kansas Express, March 30, 1861.
111. Ibid., May 4, 1861; Goodnow diary, April 6, 10-13, 15-20, 24, May 7, 9, 14, 15, 18, 23, 30, 1861.
112. Ibid., April 23, 24, May 9, 23, 1861; House Journal, 1861, p. 855; Senate Journal, 1861, p. 292.
113. Western Kansas Express, June 1, 1861.
114. Goodnow diary, July 17, 19, 20, 22-26, August 3, 6, 8, 9, September 12, October 5, 15-18, 24, 26, 30, 31, December 16, 27, 1861.
115. "Minutes," Bluemont Central College Association, September 11, 1861, p. 27.
116. Goodnow diary, September 28, October 2, 1861.
117. Ibid., October 8, 15-18, 24, 26, 28, December 11, 14, 21, 1861.
118. Ibid., January 2, 15, 20, 1862; House Journal, 1862, p. 86.
119. Goodnow diary, January 15, 20, 24, 25, 27, 28, 31, February 5, 6, 18, 15, 17, 18, 1862; House Journal, 1862, p. 276.
120. Goodnow diary, February 20, 21, 24, 25, 27, March 3, 1862; Senate Journal, 1862, p. 192.
121. Minutes of the Kansas Annual Conference, of the Methodist Episcopal Church, Seventh Session, Held in Wyandott, Kansas, March 12th, 1862, p. 20.
122. Goodnow diary, March 17, 1862; Manhattan Express, March 22, 1862.
123. "Minutes," trustees, Bluemont Central College Association, March 29, 1862, p. 28.
124. Goodnow diary; April 10, 1862.
125. "Record of School District No. 7, County of Riley," July 19, 1862.
126. Ibid., July 26, 1862.
127. Manhattan Express, June 28, 1862.
128. Goodnow diary, July 80, 1862.
129. Col. Albert Todd, '72, in The Alumnus, Manhattan, February-March, 1908, p. 152.
130. "Record of School District No. 7," November 21, 1863; "Minutes," board of regents, Kansas State Agricultural College, December 2, 1863, p. 7.
131. Goodnow diary, February 7, 13, 1863; General Laws of the State of Kansas, 1863, p. 11, 12; House Journal, 1863, pp. 216, 217; Senate Journal, 1863, pp. 170-172.
132. Goodnow diary, March 2, 1863,
133. "Minutes," Bluemont Central College Association, March 5, 1863, p. 29.
134. Minutes of the Kansas Annual Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church I March 11-16, 1863, p. 11.
135. Ibid.. p. 23.
136. "Minutes," trustees, Bluemont Central College Association, April 16, 1863.
137. Goodnow diary, March 23, 1863.
138. Ibid., March 31, 1863.
139. Ibid., April 1, 1863.
140. Ibid., June 18, 19, 1863.
141. The First Catalogue of the Officers and Students of the Kansas State Agricultural College, 1865-4 (Manhattan, 1864), p. 5.
142. Leavenworth Daily Conservative, July 12, 1863; The Kansas Farmer, Topeka, September 1, 1863, p. 117.
143. Goodnow diary, July 2, 1863.
144. "Minutes," board of regents, Kansas State Agricultural College, July 23, 1863.
145. "Minutes," Bluemont Central College Association, December 14, 1864, April 25, 1865.
146. Minutes of the Ninth Session of the Kansas Annual Conference, of the Methodist Episcopal Church, Held in Leavenworth, Kansas, March, 1864, p. 26.
147. Minutes of the Tenth Session of the Kansas Annual Conference, of the Methodist Episcopal Church, Held in Topeka, Kansas, March 15th, 1865
, pp. 25, 26.
148. "History of Kansas State Agricultural College," by J. D. Walters, in College Symposium, p. 20; History of the Kansas State Agricultural College (Manhattan, 1909), by J. D: Walters, p. 19.
149. "Minutes," board of regents, Kansas State Agricultural College, July 23, 1883, p. 8.
150. The Industrialist, Manhattan, August 21, 1875; Report of the Kansas State Agricultural College, 1875, p. 2.
151. "Minutes," April 9, 1879, p. 276.
152. Industrialist, January 8, 1876.
153. Ibid., June 28, 1879.
154. "Minutes," August 8, 1879, p. 281.
155. Ibid., April 9, 1879. p. 276.
156. Ibid., August 6, 1879, p. 279.
157. "Minutes," Bluemont Central College Association, July 7, 1880, p. 34.
158. Ibid., January 18, 1881, p. 35.
159. Ibid., January 27, 1881, p. 36.
160. Third Biennial Report, K. S. A. C., 1881-1882, p. 5.
161. Industrialist, June 10, 1882.
162. Ibid., March 31, 1883.
163. "Minutes," June 12, 1883, p. 403.
164. Industrialist, September 1, 1883.
165. "Minutes," October 10, 1883, p. 415.
166. Industrialist, September 1, December 8, 1888.
169. Industrialist, December 1, 1926; History of Bluemont College, Mother of Kansas State College, by C. A. Kimball.
167. Letter of T. C. Wells dated May 14, 1859, in Kansas Historical Quarterly, v. V, 1936, p. 399.
168. "Minutes," February 27, April 2, 1884, pp. 423, 425.