Jump to Navigation

Bypaths of Kansas History - November 1940

November 1940 (Vol. 9, No. 4), pages 398 to 408.
Transcribed by lhn;
digitized with permission of the Kansas Historical Society.

ANOTHER OSAGE WEDDING

From History of the Shawnee Indians (Cincinnati, Ephraim Morgan & Sons, 1855), by Henry Harvey, pp. 312-316.

While residing as agent among the Osage Indians, in 1850, I was invited, with my family, to attend a wedding. The marriage was between two halfbreeds, both of whom were educated-one at the Harmony Mission, and the other at the Osage Catholic Mission. The marriage was to be consummated at the Catholic Mission, after their order. The young man's parents resided about five miles distant from the mission.

The parties, very politely, both invited us to be present on the occasion, and offered to send their ox-teams and wagoners, and haul us, but we had conveyances of our own. About ten in the morning, all parties repaired to the Catholic church. The ceremony was administered by the priest, and advice on the occasion, and prayer, etc., attended to, when the meeting was dismissed and the company set off for the "dinner-place." The married couple rode foremost, and next, their two attendants-all dressed very nicely and costly, and on fine horses-then the company promiscuously, some in horse-wagons, some in ox-wagons, others on horseback, and many on foot-dogs by the score, too. Altogether the company extended for a considerable distance, and made a very antic appearance indeed.

On arriving at the residence of the young woman, and observing this singular company all gathered in and around the house, I was struck with the novel sight: there were dragoons, in uniform, from Fort Scott, Frenchmen, Cherokees, Quapaws, Senecas, Caws, Osages, Negroes, and American citizens, all there, mingling together, conversing in seven or eight different languages, and having as many different complexions. Every kind of dress, from the richest silk and broadcloth to the old dirty blanket. There were ponies, mules, jacks, horses, oxen, and dogs, to any number, and fighting each other all round.

All seemed to enjoy themselves well, except one man, a half-breed Osage and generally a clever fellow, who had got whisky, was drunk, and very mad; for some time he appeared to be dangerous, but at length, finding that the agent would have him arrested, he became quiet and there was no more trouble with him that day.

Soon dinner was ready. There was placed in the yard a table, about sixty feet long, which was literally loaded with dishes and victuals of an excellent quality, and very well done up, too, but then there was trouble there, for the hundreds of dogs, which had made their appearance on the ground, by this time wanted to be eating, too. Provision though had been made for this anticipated contingency, so those little fellows had to wait till their turn might come round; there was a tall young Osage gentleman, dressed in a clean white blanket from his hips down, and his upper-half naked and checkered off with antique figures made with red paint, his face and his head painted as red as paint could make them, and not a hair on his head except a small

(398)

BYPATHS OF KANSAS HISTORY 399

knot on the top. There he sat, large as life, about the middle of the table, with a nice long whip, made for the occasion, and which was long enough to reach to each end of the table. This whip he used very dexterously, and many a poor dog suffered by it. There he sat, with all the dignity imaginable, in his new office. While the dinner-table was being made ready for the whites and the more favored class of guests, there were, I should guess, about twenty cookingfires in and about the yard, where the common Indian women were cooking their own dinners. They had a number of large beeves killed. Those who were cooking at these outside fires, had large pieces of beef stuck upon stakes before the fires, and were broiling them before these fires; large kettles of soup were boiling over the coals, and any quantity of coffee making, too, in kettles. Now there was no dog-master allotted to these places, and those half-starved creatures must eat somewhere. The man at the table beat them away from there, and then they would run straight to the other cooking-places. The Indian dogs are generally remarkably tractable, but here were many young ones who were not used to such crowds and were not well trained, and probably felt a good deal like many of their owners did, that, as there was plenty, on every hand, they would make sure of one full meal anyhow.

The women had a hard time, and were to be pitied. The children would be continually dipping their little dirty hands into everything, which was bad enough to bear, but then, the dogs would push their noses right in the soup, or pull at the broiling beef; but they paid dear for their morsel, for the cook being furnished with a long heavy paddle, with which she kept the soup or coffee in motion, would just as sure paddle the dog on the head or back, as ever he put himself about the victuals, and not be much troubled either, as she would put her paddle right back, and not be at the trouble of cleaning it at all.

When the dinner was ready, the newly-married couple were seated very cleverly at the table, and most of the whites and half-breeds too ate at the same table; which was well attended to by the cooks, and all were very orderly, though a great deal of talking went round, and I may add, that the eating continued until dark. I believe I never saw as much provision consumed in one afternoon before. Great respect was shown to us, and indeed they gave the preference to the white people entirely.

After the first table was through with dinner, an old black man, who could understand and converse in the Osage language as well as an Indian could, and could make all the fun they desired, drew out his fiddle, and the young people had a real dance till we left, near night, and, as I learned from others, nearly the whole night.

Those of the Indians, who had to cook and eat on the ground, appeared just as happy as those who were more favored, and such as were not invited at all took no offense at being slighted.

There was a great expense attending this marriage, which, according to the Osage rule, has to be borne by the young man who has been so fortunate as to get a wife.

There was an old Indian woman who went about, the whole afternoon, among the crowd, shouting and chanting in the Osage language, which I could

400 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

not understand. This woman, as I was informed, was hired for that purpose, and paid for her services a horse and many other articles.

I believe about four hundred people ate dinner at that singular wedding. I learned that some of the Indians remained on the ground until everything fit to eat was consumed.

REMEMBER THE SABBATH DAY

From the Lawrence Republican, June 2, 1859.

We are glad that the steamer Silver Lake is able to make regular trips between this city and the mouth of the river. We hope she may do a large and profitable business. But we are not glad that her owners should evince so little regard for the feelings of the moral and religious classes of our community as to get up an excursion trip on the Sabbath; and we are extremely sorry that any considerable number of our citizens should have lent their countenance to so gross and open a desecration of the Sabbath, by taking part in that trip. We are not aware that God made any exception in favor of Kansas, when he said: "Remember the Sabbath day to keep it holy." It seems to be a general impression that the decalogue has been abrogated west of the Mississippi river, but we can find no just ground for that supposition. On the contrary, we believe it to be just as wicked for men to lie and steal and break the Sabbath and commit adultery in Kansas as any where else. It will be an unfortunate thing for us as a city if we obtain commercial prosperity at the expense of the higher and more sacred interests of morality and religion. "Righteousness exalteth a nation, but sin is a reproach to any people."

"DIED OF INTEMPERANCE"

From the Emporia News, July 21, 1860.

A man named William Toppan was found dead near Oskaloosa, Jefferson county, a few days since. From the fact of his having been drunk when last seen alive, and that a gallon jug half full of whisky was found by his side when he was discovered, the coroner's jury returned a verdict of "died of intemperance."

AN INVITATION TO GET SCALPED

From the Leavenworth Daily Conservative, July 11, 1867.

FORT WALLACE, KAN.,

July 2, 1867.

This place is still in a state of siege. There is no forage here, and we have to depend altogether upon grazing the animals. The weather is dry and hot, and the grass is beginning to parch and dry up. Other supplies are beginning to run short. If the Indians do not kill us all off, are we to be allowed to starve?

It has been proclaimed to the world, by certain military gentlemen high in authority, that the cause of the Indian troubles, was the desire of speculators out here

BYPATHS OF KANSAS HISTORY 401

to sell supplies to the government. Where are these speculators, and where are their supplies? I have traveled through from Salina, and can say with truth that there is nothing to sell in the country. There are actually no supplies except what you find at the stage stations, and military posts, and very little is to be found there.

At Fort Harker there was not a pound of forage, and other supplies were either very short, or entirely exhausted. At Fort Hays-the only other military post between Harker and Wallace-they were better supplied, but even there they had not enough for times of peace, to say nothing of the present extraordinary necessities. I have already spoken of the condition of things here.

The stage stations are all short, and they have to haul everything but hay, from Salina, or the end of the railroad, even to Denver City.

A bull-train of forty wagons, loaded with corn for Denver, was attacked day before yesterday, at a point about twelve miles west of here by a band of 60 or 75 Indians. As is usual on such occasions the train was immediately "corralled"-that is, the wagons were driven up close together, with the oxen inside the circle; this protects the cattle, and the wagons form a breastwork, behind which the teamsters fight-and a brisk fight was carried on till night. Yesterday morning the train was started again, and as a measure of extra precaution, the teams were moved four abreast; they had not gone six hundred yards, when they were again attacked, and this time they had to remain corralled until the afternoon, when fortunately a stage from the west came along, and the stage escort and train men uniting, were able to keep off the Indians and bring both train and stage back to Pond Creek. The stage came in here this morning with the wounded-it is perfectly riddled with bullets.

The Indians were very cool and deliberate in their conduct, and showed a method and determination in their movements, that is an entirely new feature in their warfare. Yesterday, while fighting the bull-train, they got hungry, and accordingly drew off out of range and deliberately sat down and cooked and eat their dinners, after which they resumed the fight.

Some of the attacking party spoke English as plainly as any one (though I can't call it good English), calling the train men d---d lousy s----s of b-hs, and telling them to come out from behind the wagons and get scalped: R. I. T.

BAXTER SPRINGS CELEBRATES ARRIVAL OF RAILROAD IN 1870

From the Daily Kansas State Record, Topeka, May 14, 1870.

The reporter of the STATE RECORD had the fortune to arrive at Baxter Springs, if not "the day before the fair," at least six hours before the "trouble" commenced. This interval of comparative quiet before the "big guns" of the excursion party arrived and "opened fire," was spent in a stroll about the town and in interviewing the newspaper folks and a few citizens. As everybody's mind, however, was taken up with business, or the approaching "big time," he was left "muchly" to the "devices and desires of his own heart," and wandered in "maiden meditation fancy free," depending on his own optics for information.

402 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

The first and last conclusion every stranger arrives at, is that there is in all creation but one Baxter Springs. The position of the town, the number of the springs from which it derives its name and all the surroundings distinguish it from any other Kansas town.

The site of the town being one mile from the Indian territory, seven miles from Missouri and only sixty miles from Arkansas, makes it a gathering place for a singular variety of human and "inhuman" beings. Quapaws, Senecas, Paolas [Peorias?], Cherokees, and other Indians meet on Military street in Baxter, the "Puke" and the "Pike." Indians, Yankees, Arkansans, Jews, Gentiles and Greeks (from Cork), each speaking their own dialect, drinking their favorite "pizen," and all confident of their ability to "whip their weight in wild cats," all conspire to make Military Street a little the liveliest "piece of road" in this Western country.

With some of the "leading foibles" of frontiersmen, the Baxterites have many of the sterling qualities. Father Colleton, the well-known Jesuit missionary and preacher, assured the writer that he had nowhere in his extensive travels, met a more attentive congregation, or a more liberal and less bigoted people than at Baxter Springs. The "Baxterites" early had the sense to see that a railroad would be the "making" of their town, worked hard for it, got drunk expeditiously when they "saved it," got sober with equal celerity, and then proceeded to "celebrate" again in due form, as this "ower true tale" is designed (as they say in Arkansas) to "norate."

THE INDIANS CELEBRATE

An Indian war-dance was the first feature on the printed programme, and on Wednesday evening, at about dusk, the "dusky warriors" filed into town on their ponies and went into camp on the public square. The Indians represented several different tribes, the Quapaws being in the majority. The southern Indians have greatly the advantage in "style over our dingy Pottawatomies," who are just civilized enough to look stupid. The Quapaw "galloping swell" arrays his manly form in gorgeous colors, his hat is ornamented with colored feathers and metal bands, he indulges in "pomp and vanities" of buckskin, and calico shirts of striking hues. This shirt does the "leading business," and no Indian gentleman goes without one. Red, green and yellow are the favorite tints, and a party of these Indians resemble in appearance a flock of paroquets. The war-dance, which came off after dark, by the light of a huge bonfire, would not have rejoiced the soul of Barnum, the "dancist." Twenty or thirty of the warriors, in a scanty allowance of clothing, jumped around for some time in a violent manner, accompanying their movements with whoops, growls and howls of varying sweetness and power. This ended the Indian part of the celebration, though a large number of them remained in town interested spectators during its continuance.

THE "WHITE CHIEFS" ARRIVE

Shortly after eight o'clock, the train from Kansas City arrived with a large number of invited guests. We have not room to enumerate the names and titles of each and all. There was Governor Harvey; Hon. Jacob Stotler; Voss, of Bourbon; Snoddy, of Linn; Mayor Halderman, of Leavenworth; Mayor McGee, of Kansas City; Van Fossen, and the hosts of Fort Scott; At-

BYPATHS OF KANSAS HISTORY 403

torney General Danford, Col. Stover, of Versailles, Mo., and many "ladyes fair" were of the party. Of the knights of the pencil, there was a goodly company.

Among the arrivals on Wednesday evening and Thursday evening, were Wilder, of the Times and Conservative; Mr. and Mrs. Hicks, of the Kansas City Journal; Riley, of the Kansas City Times; Simons, of the same; Whollegan, of the Kansas City News; Householder and Haines, of the Kansas City Bulletin; Johnston, of the Commonwealth; Tobey, of the Lawrence Tribune; Taylor and Kessler, of the Wyandotte Gazette; Col. DeMotte, of the Lexington (Mo.) Register; Goodwin, of the Sedalia Bazoo; Horner, of the Chetopa Advance; [Amos] Sanford, of the Workingman's Journal; D.T. Warner, of the Girard Press; Barter, of the Mound City Sentinel; Ingalls, on behalf of the Atchison Champion, and possibly others whom we "know by sight," but can't call by name.

THE EXCURSIONISTS EAT, DANCE AND SLEEP

This army advanced on the devoted town, and were "hospitably entertained" at the Pacific restaurant, and at a large tent converted into a dining hall for the occasion. The hotels were soon filled to overflowing, and the guests were "billeted" at private residences for the night. Late in the evening dancing commenced at "Lee's hall." Two large rooms were crowded with dancers and lookers on. Of course the ball was a success. Kansas ladies, always pretty, always look additionally radiant at a ball, and the number of newspaper people present guaranteed an ample supply of elegant, modest, and graceful partners among the gentlemen. The facilities for dancing in Baxter being superior to those for sleeping, most of the guests took a great deal of the former to a little of the latter.

ORATORY AND A BARBECUE

Thursday was set apart for the speech making, and accordingly the multitude at about 10 a. m. gathered at Van Epp's grove in the edge of town, and gathered about the speakers' stand.

Mr. McKeighan, of Baxter Springs, welcomed the visitors to Baxter Springs in a neat little speech, in which he humorously alluded to, and apologized for, the unavoidable inconveniences to which the visitors had been subjected. He then introduced Attorney-General Danford, who responded for the guests. Gen. Danford "lit out" in one of his "loftiest efforts." He complimented the women on their beauty, and the babies on their numbers and their plumpness. He alluded to the interest of the occasion; now gathered under the green trees and overreaching skies, the representatives of Leavenworth, Kansas City, Lawrence and "hail Columbus," and every portion of the state had met to clasp by the hand the people of Baxter Springs. He painted a glowing picture of the future, when the locomotive which brought the excursionists to Baxter would speed between sun and sun, from the frozen shores of the Great Lakes to the warm waves of the Gulf. In fancy he saw train after train following each other like flitting shadows over this great highway of commerce. He then announced that the condiments, the ice cream, the mammoth ox of the occasion, would be served up in the shape of an oration by Hon. Isaac S. Kalloch. Mr. Kalloch spoke briefly, beginning by disclaiming the intention attributed to him by Gen. Danford, of "spreading himself all over the

404 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

audience." He thought no man would have much chance to "spread" after one of Danford's efforts. The speaker alluded to the history of the Missouri River, Fort Scott and Gulf railroad, characterizing it as a pioneer railroad enterprise, its engines being the first to wake the echoes of the Indian country. He said the road had had a stormy history, and spoke of the honest but misguided opposition of some of the settlers of its progress. This part of Mr. Kalloch's speech stirred up a large portion of the audience, and numerous uncomfortable questions were propounded to the speaker. At one time as he was speaking of the common schools of the country, a lady in the crowd remarked, "Where are the schools to come from? Joy has got the school landsl" Mr. Kalloch then went on to speak in the usual vein of railroads; the necessity of national aid, and "gave it to" "briefless lawyers" and others who opposed the congressional policy of land grants to railroads. He finally dropped this subject and closed with a fine panegyric on Kansas, generally.

Dinner was then announced. Several sheep and a big Cherokee steer had been roasted whole and meat was served out to the crowd "by the large." An elegant dinner was provided especially for the guests from abroad.

After dinner, speaking was resumed. Col. Hanford, of Baxter Springs, made an eminently sensible speech to his fellow-citizens, urging a liberal policy toward new-comers, the development of the resources of the country, and invited the attention of capitalists to the magnificent water-power furnished by Spring river.

Gov. Harvey was then introduced and made a few congratulatory remarks contrasting the Baxter Springs, which he once reached after a hot, dusty, and wearisome march during the war days, with the Baxter Springs of today. He came simply to rejoice with the people of Baxter over their prosperity and their prospects, not to enter into the discussion of vexed and disputed questions.

After Gov. Harvey had concluded, loud calls were made for Sanford. The grove rang with "Sanford!" "Sanfordl" "Sanford and the Leaguel"

Mayor Halderman made a few remarks, but the cries for "Sanford" were renewed. And at last Judge Sanford proceeded to give his views on the Neutral Land question. He stated that the discussion had been brought up by Mr. Kalloch in the morning. He bitterly denounced the land grant business in congress; he declared that under the Fourteenth Amendment the tribal relation of the Indians ceased, and the treaty business ceased. He was glad Baxter Springs and the Neutral Land had the railroad, and said the people would have the railroad and the land, too. (Tremendous cheers.) He alluded to the poverty of the early settlers of the Neutral Land, and remarked that the people of Cherokee county were not asked to pay $2,000,000 to build Mr. Joy's railroad. He wished for railroads, but the corporations must build them with their own money, not the people's. He declared the contest one between the poor and honest, and the rich and corrupt, and said the struggle would go on till it resulted in the triumphant vindication of the right.

Judge Sanford's remarks were frequently interrupted by calls of approbation and applause, and it was evident that the Leaguers were "in possession," and wished to hear their side of the question presented. At last Col. Stover came forward, and made a short but interesting speech, telling the settlers to stay on their lands and wait for future justice. Calls were made for "Willey" and "Vincent," and the latter, being sheriff of Cherokee county, made a few re-

BYPATHS OF KANSAS HISTORY 405

marks in defense of the good character of the settlers, and the absence of any necessity for troops in their county.

Dr. Griswold, of Ohio, then spoke at length on the natural beauty of Kansas, the advantages of railway communications, etc.

Calls were made for Voss, and this provoked some hostility in the crowd; finally at the urgent solicitation of Judge Sanford, order was restored, and "Mart" made a speech in favor of the respectful treatment of strangers, law, order, justice and civilization generally.

Col. De Motte, of the Lexington (Mo.) Register, closed with a capital little speech, witty, good-natured, conciliatory and at times eloquent. His history of his blissful sleep in the hay-mow the night before, and his declaration that for sleeping purposes, a Baxter hay-mow exceeded a feather bed anywhere else, brought out a storm of laughter and applause. The crowd then dispersed, feeling 100 percent better for the colonel's speech.

"A FEW REMARKS"

Some hours elapsed between the close of the exercises and the departure of the train, at 8:30, and many of the visitors took a parting look at Spring river, which flows within a mile of the city, and ranks as the most beautiful stream in Kansas. Some time was occupied in taking leave of friends in Baxter, and of these the excursionists had many. The representatives of the Topeka press were placed under special obligations to Messrs. Hawkins, Durham, and Lund, formerly of Topeka, now in the real estate business, in Baxter, and to Mr. Coulter, the gentlemanly "local" of the Cherokee Sentinel. The excursionists as a body, spoke highly of the hospitality of the leading citizens of the city, and, as under the soft light of the moon the train sped away northward into the wide, slumbering, soundless prairie, all eyes gave a kindly parting glance at Baxter Springs.

TAKING THE 1870 CENSUS

The lot of a frontier census enumerator was not an easy one. Soldiers were escorts for one Z. Jackson, who worked the Barton-Rush county line July 21, 1870. The following has been copied from Jackson's manuscript report (p. 1, v. IV, of the Ninth U. S. Census for Kansas), preserved by the Historical Society:

Name Age Sex Color Occupation Place of Birth
Hahn, August 27 M W Farmer Hanover, Germany
Seiglies, Carl 23 M W Farmer Hanover, Germany

Note. I found these settlers on Walnut creek near the west line of Barton county and I was not able to ascertain deffinitely if they were in Barton or Rush county. I also found two other settlers whom I had enumerated .in the Town of Ellsworth, they having left their families at the place because of the fear of Indian difficulties but had come out here with their horses & plows to prepare homes for themselves- This is a beautifull valley and good timber and fine water. All the settlers congregated at one house. Z. Jackson Asst. Mar.

406 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

Note 2d. I traveled through this country with a strong escort of U. S. soldiers to protect me from the hostile Indians who roam at will over these prairies which ought to be the home of our people in the overcrowded cities of the East. . Z. Jackson Asst. Mar.

Note 3d. As these settlers are but just commencing and have not yet raised any crops I will not make an agricultural report.
I, Z. Jackson, Asst. Mar. for the 41st Disct Kan., certify that the foregoing return was made according to Law & Instructions. Z. Jackson Asst. Mar.

AN ASSIST BY THE KANSAS PACIFIC

From the Ellsworth Reporter, January 11, 1872.

A curious incident occurred in connection with the severe storm lately up the Kansas Pacific road. During the storm while the train was stopped a large number of buffaloes congregated around the train and stood on the lee side of it for protection against the storm.

ADDENDA TO "COLLEGE FOOTBALL IN KANSAS"

Bliss Isely, of Wichita, has furnished additional information on the Fairmount-Washburn game played December 25, 1905 (see pp. 294, 295). He wrote also of a night game in Wichita on October 6, 1905. His correspondence is quoted in part:

It occurred to me that possibly you might want to have in your files the names of the players who participated in that memorable game on Christmas day, 1905, when the forward pass was born. Here they are:

Washburn Position Fairmount
Ralph Johnston left end Elmer Cook
David Munford left tackle Fred Burton
Clare Smith Lockwood left guard R. J. Kirk
John Dadisman center William Davis (Capt.)
Irving Platt right guard Lawrence Abbey
Frank Daniel Hartzell right tackle Bliss Isely
Robert Stewart right end Arthur Solter
Hugh Hope quarter Charles Burton
Glenn Millice right half Charles Cook
Wm. Arthur Smiley left half George Solter
Wistar P. Williams (Capt.) full back Percy Bates

You may wonder how Bill Davis, playing center, happened to throw the first forward pass. The fact is that Bill was a very powerful kicker and also had strong arms and shoulders. When he threw this pass he went back into

BYPATHS OF KANSAS HISTORY 407

kicking position and I moved over into center. Then Davis passed to Art Solter.

In taking these names from the Sunflower [official Fairmount student paper] I do not notice any substitutions. If I remember rightly, there were none. The genius who arranged for this game was R. J. Kirk, listed as left guard, who also was manager. There was no such thing as faculty management or student-enterprise tickets. The students ran the game and had to make it pay or go broke. The students made up the deficits. Players carried the burden of the financial management. That is really the reason we played this game on Christmas, in an effort to make a few dollars to get out of the hole. All the players who had any money were creditors of the team and wanted to come out. We did not make enough to come out of the hole. I put my overcoat money into the team and after Christmas had to wear the same old overcoat I had been wearing for six years.

Officials were Dr. John Outland, referee; Willis S. Bates, umpire; Theodore H. Morrison, head linesman. Outland was coach of Washburn and Bates of Fairmount. Morrison was librarian at Fairmount. We could not afford to employ officials in that era, except on occasions when we were playing very bitter enemies.

R. J. Kirk is entitled to still another distinction. He instituted night football, although it did not stick. By referring to the Sunflower files I find this game was played October 6, 1905. I think that night football had been tried before. . . . The game was between Fairmount and Cooper College of Sterling and was played in Wichita. The score was 24 to 0 in favor of Fairmount, which meant that we made four touchdowns and kicked the goals. In those days a touchdown counted only five points. We discontinued night football because the turnout at the initial game was not sufficient to justify the added expense of lighting.

The lighting used for that game was supplied by the Hydro-Carbon Company, now the Coleman Lamp and Stove Company. These were gasoline-mantle lights. Of course the lights were not to be compared with modern lighting, but in those kerosene days we thought they were grand. Roy Kirk is now on the San Francisco Call.

Night football was not new to the Middle West. The Wichita Daily Eagle of October 6, 1905, said: "Tonight will demonstrate whether or not football can be played by gaslight. Several are dubious over the outcome, but a majority are of the opinion that it will be a success. A few of the local enthusiasts have seen the game played by gaslight at Des Moines, Iowa, and Richmond, Ind. Both of them say that as far as light is concerned it was a complete success." Of the game and lighting arrangements on the field the Eagle of October 7 reported:

That football can be played successfully was demonstrated at Association park last night when, before a large crowd of people, Fairmount college of this city defeated Cooper college of Sterling, by a score of 24 to 0.

408 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

In view of the fact that the game was the first of the season as far as the Wichita enthusiasts are concerned, it was a good exhibition and everyone who attended was well satisfied with the result.

The feature of the game and the one in which everyone was interested, even more So than in the result of the contest, was the outcome of the experiment of playing by gas light.

It was a decided success. The only weak point was the fact that in the center of the field there was a place where the light did not shine strong enough for the spectators to witness all of the plays.

Manager Kirk states that in the future this will be overcome by hanging a cluster of lights high in the air over this part of the field. The lights will be suspended fifty feet above the ground by means of wires stretched from the grandstand to poles erected at the north fence. Three or four of these clusters will be hung along the center of the diamond. All of the lights will be fitted with reflectors to turn the light away from the eyes of the spectators and into the field. This was to have been done last night, but the reflectors could not be secured in time for the game.

Twenty-eight lights were strung along the side lines and two more hung at each end of the gridiron. The ball was painted white, so as to be plainly visible when punted.