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Kansas Historical Quarterly - Journal of Isaac McCoy, 1828

for the Exploring Expedition of 1828

edited by Lela Barnes

August 1936 (vol. 5, no. 3, pages 227 to 277
Transcribed by lhn; additional HTML by Susan Stafford;
digitized with permission of the Kansas State Historical Society.

Kansas Historical Quarterly, August 1936I. INTRODUCTION

WITH the purchase of Louisiana by the United States in 1803, removal of eastern Indians to unoccupied territory became a feasible plan, but it was not until the election of Andrew Jackson that settlement of the tribes on lands west of the Mississippi river became established as a national policy. By this time several tribes had removed to the West under treaty arrangements; removal of those remaining was legalized by the act of Congress of 1830.

A step in the development of this program was an exploring expedition ordered in 1828 to permit certain tribes to examine the country west of the Mississippi and select locations. Isaac McCoy, Baptist missionary at Carey, Michigan, was appointed commissioner to accompany representatives of the tribes. [1] His appointment and instructions were contained in a letter from Thomas L. McKenney, superintendent of Indian trade:

Department of War,
Off: Ind: Affairs,
10th June, 1828.
To The Revd.
Isaac McCoy,
Supt. Indian School,
Carey, via Fort Wayne, Indiana:
Sir,

The Congress having appropriated fifteen thousand Dollars to defray the expense of an exploring party of Indians, and you having made known the desire of certain Potawatomies to visit the Country west of the Mississippi, the Secretary of War directs me to inform you that you are appointed to accompany the party, and that you are at liberty to take with you three Potawatomies, and if necessary an Interpreter. To you is confided the trust of expending the means provided for the expense of the undertaking. You will be particular therefore in the exercise of a rigid economy, and in keeping regular and properly vouched accounts of the expenditures. Of the fifteen thousand Dollars, I am directed to authorize you to draw for Ten thousand on the Secretary of War, at sight, accompanying the bill with a letter of advice.

You will repair to St. Louis as early as possible, and report to Genl. Wm. Clark, Supt. Ind: Affairs, who has instructions upon the subject, and who will name a leader of the party, and in general give the necessary detailed instructions for the government of your route and movements.

(227)

228 THE KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

Should it be found indispensable to use more than ten thousand Dollars, in paying the necessary expenses of the undertaking, Genl. Clark will arrange with you at St. Louis for the remainder of the appropriation by placing it within your reach, which, however it is expected will be so managed as to cover the cost of the agents, including your own pay, and which will be made equivalent, as far as that may be possible, to the nature and value of the services which you may render. The Chickasaws and Choctaws are notified to be off as soon as possible. You had better drop Genl. Clark, at St. Louis, a line saying when you will be there. Move quick. I am
Very Respectfully
Yr Obt. Servt.
Tho : L. McKenney2

McCoy's acceptance was as follows:

Sir

Yesterday I had the honor to receive your favour of the 10th ult. authorizing and instructing me to accompany an exploring party of Indians to West of Mississippi.

In obedience to your instruction, I shall set out tomorrow for St. Louis accompanied by several Indians.

Carey, 100 Miles N. West of
Fort Wayne, Ind. July 1, 1828

Thomas L. McKenney Esq. Department of War, Off. Ind. Affairs, Washington.

Most Respectfully
Sir Your Obt. Sevt.
Isaac McCoy3

With representatives of the Pottawatomie and Ottawa tribes McCoy set out for St. Louis on July 2, 1828. Upon arrival there it was found that delegations from the southern tribes would not reach the city for some time. Fearing that the entire project would have to be abandoned if it became necessary to postpone the starting date until late in the season, McCoy persuaded General Clark to authorize two tours, one for the Pottawatomie and Ottawa representatives who were already on the ground, and a later tour for the Creeks, Choctaws and Chickasaws should representatives of the two last named tribes arrive in time.

McCoy's journal here reproduced covers the journey from Michigan to St. Louis and the first tour with the northern Indians.4 A second tour was made, but the journal record is missing.

Following the journal entries are various statements of account,

BARNES: EXPLORING EXPEDITION OF 1828 229

provision lists and receipts, suggestive of the needs and costs of the expedition. Unless marked as original these documents are duplicates retained by McCoy for his own records and preserved with his correspondence.

II. ENTRIES FROM THE JOURNAL: JULY 2 TO OCTOBER 12, 1528

At Camp, Shawaunukwuk, one of the Putawatomies who are to Wednesday, accompany me, went day before yesterday to see some July 2d. 1828 of his friends, and commenced drinking. Yesterday I sent twice after him, but could not get him home. This morning I sent for him early He came but had sold his shirt which we had given him a few days since, for whiskey, and had abused an outer garment which I had lent him.

At ten o'clock I made a short address to our company and set out on our journey to west of Mississippi. Our company consisted of, Naoquah Kozhuk, Gosa, & Wesauogana, Ottawas, and Magaukwok, & Shawaunukwuk, Puts. & Shadenoy, who is half Putawatomie far an interpreter. Several of the neighbors were present at our starting. My wife and child, and Mr. Bay accompanied us this day, and will spend the night with us, and return tomorrow. By the Secretary of War we are directed to proceed to St. Louis, & report to Genl. Clark, of whom we shall receive further instructions.

Wednesday July 3
I was quite sick during the night, became worse at day light-took medicine and at 9 o'clock took my leave of my wife and babe, our brother Bay. They started back and we proceeded. I was scarcely able to set on my horse. At 12 better, at which time I write this. After taking some food, and rest, felt better and proceeded. Encamped beside a small Creek.

Friday July 4
Swam our horses across Calemink, mired one at [an]other place, and with some difficulty got him a [nd] the others across that and similar rivers, and encamped at the mouth of the Calemink.

Saturday July 5
Having some writing to do we [c] ould not leave our camp before 9 o'clock. It was fortunate for us that we were near an encampment of Indians. Of them we obtained a Canoe, in which we crossed the Calemink ourselves and baggage, & swam the horses. We reached Chicago about 12, wh [ere] we found a few articles which we needed, & transacted some other business. I have written the governor requesting, for reasons assigned, that the treaty on St. Joseph be deferred till October in the hope that by that time

230 THE KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

I may be back. The Putawatomies with me having seen the new country may be of service at this treaty. Mr. Reed, subagent at Carey has promised to write Gov. Cass to the same effect. I had hoped also that the agt. and subagt. A[lexande]r Wolcott and Mr. Doyle of this place, would also commend the same to the Governor but this they declined for reasons which they did not assign. I am of opinion that these gentlemen, tho' very friendly to me personally are unfriendly to the project of the removal of the Indians. Mr. Siliman the Governor's nephew, now on a commission to the Winabago & others, will do what he can for us in relation to the treaty.

Spent some time swiming our horses across Chicago river, and crossed our baggage in a very small Canoe, and encamped on the river Auplain, 12 miles from Chicago Fort, or Fort Dearbourn. Every day we pass Indians traveling or encamped. We are now near an encampment.

River Auplain [5] 12 miles from Chicago. Sunday Jul. 6. 1828
Here we are resting. At half past 8 o'clock commenced Service in Ottawa, which consisted of a hymn & prayer a discourse, & concluded with another Hymn. In the evening we had a Hymn & prayer. Having little to do, am afforded time for reflection on the awful responsibility which at this time devolves upon me. This is increased [by] a view of the peculiar and very merciful dealings of Providence [in] relation to our affairs.

The measure of alocating the Indians in a country of their own under suitable provisions of our government, is the only one in which we can discover grounds to hope for their preservation. This measure is warmly opposed by many in authority. Zealous efforts on the part of a few worthy advocates, obtained for it a majority in the House of Representatives in Congress merely of ten votes. We have laboured more than five years on the subject, and do now rejoice to see that it has gained an ascendency over opposition, and, the more to be dreaded apathy of too many, even in the small degree which authorizes this expedition. Should some disaster, or some mismanagement occur-Should the Indians be dissatisfied with the country they shall see, the business might receive such a check that it could not be resusitated until too late for many almost expiring tribes! We are going to look [for] a home for a homeless people-a people who were once lords of all the Continent of America, and whose just claims have never been acknowledged by others, nor conveyed away by themselves. Half the United States say the

BARNES: EXPLORING EXPEDITION of 1828 231

southern Indians shall not come north of the degree of 36-30 NT. latitude. Or in other words we are limited to the regions west of Arkansas territory, and Missouri State. Should the inhospitableness of that country deny them a place there, they will be left destitute unless mercy provides by means unseen to short sighted mortals.

I feel myself inadequate to these responsibilities. The particulars of this inadequacy need not be entered in my journal. But under a sense of dependence on God I have asked of Him the appointment which I now have received-and to Hinz I look for ability to perform its duties. To Him alone must be ascribed the Kingdom and the power and the Glory for ever Amen!

River Auplain Monday July 7
Left camp at six oclock At noon halted for dinner near the river. Passed this morning a curious rock singly in the prarie, porous, with holes large enough to admit Dozens of apartments for snakes, and convenient passages from one to the other. The rock is about 9 feet long 7 wide, & 4 feet higher than the surface of the ground. Three or four striped snakes were basking in the sunshine on the top, which retired on our approach, others or the same were seen passing at pleasure through their habitation.

In the afternoon passed a singular hill rising about 40 feet in the level prarie, mentioned by Schoolcraft. [6] Encamped at the River Page.

Tuesday July 8
Arrived at 12-encamped at the mouth of Fox river about this place reside a few distressed looking white people

Wednesday 9
Crossed Illinois river in a canoe, and swam our horses. Passed several huts of poor looking white people, near one of which we halted for dinner-tired of bacon, we have been able to take a few pigions, & the like, but cannot get either beef, venison, or chicken, of the few inhabitants. Travelled ten miles without the appearance of a road, steering our way thro. the praries. Encamped earlier than usual for the sake of water-four of our men Hunted till dark, but killed nothing.

Thursday July 10
As usual halted an hour and a half at noon. Encamped about 10 miles South of Fort Clark. Bot. some bacon. and a fowl today, at one of the two houses -,ve have passed. Travelled several miles without a road.

232 THE KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

Friday July 11
We commonly set out at 6 oclock in the morning. Since we passed Chicago we have travelled about 14 miles of every 15 in Prarie. Since we left Illinois river Praries have been more extensive. To our left there is only now and then a small grove or streak of timber along water courses. We usually encamp in the open Prarie contiguous to wood for fuel. Dews fall heavy on us. Where there is no fear of rain I merely pitch my musquito bar, this morning it was so wet that water could be wrung out of it.

We dined in a Prarie where no fuel could be obtained within a long distance except pieces of a Broken bridge of which we availed ourselves of as much as cooked our dinner encamped on a branch of Sangamo[n].

Saturday July 12
Dined near a whiteman's house, where we obtained a kettle to aid in preparing our dinner. passed Springfield near Sangamo[n] river. The inhabitants and people around the place may be denominated unmannerly or without manners at all. Bot. a little sugar & flour. Encamped on a branch .of Sangamo [n] . We are yet 93 miles from 8t. Louis.

Sunday July 13
I halted here last evening with a severe pain in the head which continued the greater part of this day. I have had a sick day. About 10 in the morning took a potion of Rheubarb & Magnesia. So sick that we could have no other service morning and evening than a hymn and prayer. Confined to my tent most of the day.

The difficulties attendant on such tours as this seem small while in tolerable health compared with the magnitude to which they swell in sickness. The parting with my dear wife and babe after they had accompanied us one day & night, was rendered doubly hard by the circumstance of my being so sick as to be scarcely able to sit on my horse at the time of our adieus. My poor wife had mounted her horse-and waited to see me seated on mine then rode off without once looking back.

Monday July 14
Set off at 6 a. m. quite unwell, yet rode 22 miles before we halted for dinner. At very little. Proceeded 18 miles further and encamped near one of the 3 houses we have passed today. I am so tired of our travelling food that my appetite will not take it. Tried here to get something more palatable, but could obtain nothing but 3 eggs, of two of these I prepared a pudding which I tied up in a cloth & boiled, and ate with sweetened water. I have just finished my repast. I am saving my third egg for my

BARNES: EXPLORING EXPEDITION OF 1828 233

breakfast. My health more comfortable. Two men out looking for deer.

Tuesday July 15.
A young man left camp early to look for Deer, joined a mile or two from camp but had taken nothing. Dined in a prarie where scarcely a few small bushes could be found along a rivulet, sufficient to prepare our dinner, two small willows were found and placed in the ground so as with the assistance of my umbrella, to shelter me from the sun. The flies bad-the road remarkably dusty, water found at eight and nine miles distance, houses not so frequent, until evening we reached Edwardsville. The settlement now compact. Encamped two miles South of Edwardsville.

Wednesday July 16
By a disagreeable ride thro. the praries, sunbeams, and dust, of 18 miles we reached Mississippi opposite St. Louis about 12 o'clock, after waiting an hour for the boat we crossed, and pitched our tents a mile above the town. I returned and made my call on Genl. Clark. He presently introduced me to a Captain Kennerly [7] who has been appointed leader of the party.

The Southern deputations of Indians have not yet arrived. Some preparations are making for the tour, and it is thought we may leave this by the 27th and return in the course of 50 or 60 days.

Cap. Kennedy appears to be a pleasant man. He has lately resigned an Indian Agency up the Missouri. He is well acquainted with the Country & people we expect to visit. He was spoken of by the Department of war as suitable for our leader, at the same time an opinion was expressed by the Department that he would likely not accept the appointment, and in that case Genl. Clark to whom the trust of appointing was confided was to appoint another person. But he has accepted, and I trust will do well.

In the evening we brought our horses into town to have them fed, and I took lodgings at the City Hotel. The company sleep in their tents tonight.

Thursday July 17
Wish'd to procure lodgings for our Indians in town but did not succeed. Wrote many letters.

Friday July 18
Made arrangements for lodgings for our Indians. Sent out for them and their baggage, when to my grief I learnt that some of them had become intoxicated. Noonday & Wesauogana came in, expressed great grief that the thing had oc

234 THE KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

currred. These were sober. Chandonois & the others kept away in order to get sober and through the day, came to their lodgings and lay down. They had not been much drunk, except Chandonois who came in the evening much intoxicated Mr. Forsythe saw him and as he was taking him up stairs to their lodgings, Chandonois fell and wounded his face. About that time I went into the room. He was becoming noisy as a drunken Indian, when I took hold on him and told him to lay down & become quiet which he did. I was much mortified at this circumstance.

Dined at Genl. Clark's in company of Col. Menard going on to treaties at Green Bay & Carey.

Saturday July 19
This morning early I was attacked with a bowel complaint supposed to be chiefly the effect of the water of this place, which to my taste is unpalateable, and always warm except when cooled with ice. I had a poor day confined to my room until evening when I rode out a short distance.

Sunday July 20
Feel in better health this morning. I have talked with Chandonois and the Indians and they say they think the error will not be repeated. Chandonois says he knows he has done wrong, and that he will not repeat it here. The Indians blame him for leading them into the error. Gosa pleads that he did not expose himself, that he drank a little and lay down until he had recovered and then came into town. Went to hear a Presbyterian preach in company of several of our Indians.

Monday July 20 [21]
Among other business gave drafts on Sec. War to the amount of $5000. Wrote home by Maj. Forsythe & Col. Menard who are going to attend the treaties.

Tuesday 21 [22]
Rode into the country ten or 12 miles to seek for accommodations for ourselves and horses, this measure I believed would tend to the improvement of the condition of our horses, the preservation of our health and would be much more economical. Lodged at H. Walton's. On this day at my instance Cap. Kennerly & Genl. Clark sent a man in a steam boat to inquire after the southern Indians. Genl. Clark gave him instructions.

Wednesday July 23
This morning I pursued my inquiries, breakfasted at J. Walton's rode into St. Louis at one oclock p. m. Having engaged horsekeeping and boarding at a Mr. Brown's, by which the 22 horses, and eight persons now here on expenses very high could be accomodated at a saving of $58.50 for every week.

BARNES: EXPLORING EXPEDITION OF 1828 235

On arriving in town I communicated this inteligence to Cap. Kennedy and Genl. Clark, both of whom approved of the arrangement, though about four of the horses they suppose will be needed in town and will not be sent out. Thursday July 24
I took our company of Indians and our horses and rode out into the country ten miles, to Mr. Brown's where I had procured quarters. Cap. Kennedy has promised to send out ten of the other horses today, keeping four in town for other uses.

Friday July 28
The other horses from town have not arrived Wrote several letters, and also wrote some Indian.

Saturday July 26
Cap. Kennedy sent out to my care 9 horses. We are comfortably situated here, and our horses have a fine situation. Thankful for a letter from my son Calvin in Ohio, by which I heard from my Dear children scattered in three different places among strangers.

While in St. Louis Wesauogana met with a cousin of his, a girl of about 11 years of age, whose parents were dead, and she had fallen into the hand of some poor Sauks. The child wept and begged him to help her. The people whom she was following also desired to get rid of her. On being informed of this and asked by Wesauogana if I would do any thing for her, I obtained the consent of Mrs. Brown to take her in here. Weasauogana and Gosa went into St. Louis today, reached the camp of the Sauks a little before they left the place. And brot. her hither. The child is very sick of a fever. Wesauogana put her on his horse, and led him, but it would have been with difficulty she could have reached this, had not young Mr. Brown, who was returning in a Dearbourne, kindly taken her into his carriage. I have hired Mr. Brown's to take care of her until we return from our tour to the west, when we design to take her with us to one of our schools.

Rode three miles to a Baptist meeting house, heard sermon and preached myself from Prov. 1. 32, 33.

Monday 28
Rode to St. Louis. Heard no news of the rest of our party, transacted some business.

Sunday 27 July
Tuesday 29 & Wednes. 30
Thursday 31
Employed busily in drawing a map of the country west of Arkansas Ter. & State of Missouri, and S. West of Missouri river. Went into St. Louis-no news from the rest of our company.

236 THE KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

Friday Aug. 1
Worked faithfully on my map.

Saturday Aug. 2
Sunday, 3
Preached at the place at which I reside, a funeral sermon on the recent deaths two sisters who died within a few hours of each other and were buried at the same time and place, one of whom was buried with an infant in her arms. A congregation respectable for numbers and attention attended.

Monday Aug. 4 Received a letter from my Son Rice in Kentucky, containinging the very satisfactory inteligence that my daughter Sarah at School in Cincinnati with a younger sister, herself about 13 years of age, had lately been Baptized by Rev. Vardeman of Kentucky. This little girl is the first of my children which has made public profession of religion. I cannot conceive of any other kind of inteligence that I could have received that would have afforded equal satisfaction, or equally conferred on me a sense [of] gratitude to God. The circumstance seems to have inspired new hopes in relation to my other dear children, and increased fervour to prayers in their behalf. The necessity of having our children scattered, not among relatives & particular friends, but as I may say, among strangers, has given their good mother and me much uneasiness. But hitherto the Lord has been very merciful to us in relation to our children.

Tuesday Aug. 5
Yesterday three of our Indians went into St. Louis. I had requested a gentleman to take care of them. He sent them out of town in time but at some wretched whiskey-shops on the road they obtained liquor and came home drunk. Two of them capable of taking care of themselves, the other was brot. home by Mr. Brown in his little wagon who found them drinking by the road side about four miles from this.

I was in bed before they arrived, and on hearing a noise went into the Indians' apartment to quiet the drunkard. He obeyed me in undressing and laying down, but as soon as he supposed I had left the room he would again begin his noise, and it was with difficulty that a young man could hold him. I at length with the assistance of the young Indian tied his hands and feet, and left him to loosen him when he would become quiet. They lost a few articles they had bot. in St. Louis.

This day I completed my map of the country proposed for Indian territory. It is 2 feet 7 inches by about 3 feet.

Wednesday--
Wrote-not much to do.

BARNES: EXPLORING EXPEDITION OF 1828 237

Thursday-
Cap. Kennerly sent me a letter he had received from the man sent to the Southern Indians. Information he had received on the way was calculated to cause fears that those Indians would not come at all. The man himself may be back in a few days.

Friday Aug. 8
I rode to St. Louis. Recd. a letter from Mr. Simerwell [8] in Boston informing that a Mr. Bingham had been appointed a missionary to Saut De St. Marie. We had hoped that Mr. Bingham would have come to Carey [9] for the assistance of that place after the departure of Mr. Lykins [10] and myself. A Mr. Stannard whom we hoped would engage with us, or at St. Marie, is in a state of health too poor to engage. We are in much want of missionary aid for Carey.

Saturday
Remained at home.

Sunday 10
Had a prayer, &c. for such as understand English, and a service in Indian.

Monday- Tuesday- Wednesday 13
I have had little to do this week, and this day above all others since I left home, I am tired of delay, lonesome, & homesick. I cannot be contented in idleness, and our delay here must make sad havoc of some of our favourite plans of the coming autumn.

Thursday Aug. 14.
I went into St. Louis. Met a note from Cap. Kennerly informing that Mr. Blake and three Creek Indians & an interpreter had arrived. Their horses are sent out to our place. I introduced 3 of our Indians with me to the Creeks-hope they will consent to come into the country.

Thankful for a letter from my Son at Carey, 16 days after I left home, and that all were well.

I called on Col. Benton, [11] a Senator, and Chairman of the Committee on Indian affairs, whose aid was last winter solicited and afforded in support of the exploring bill.

Friday & Saturday
I did little except write Indian

Sunday-
Rode out to hear a Presbyterian preach-preached myself from the parable of the talents.

238 THE KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

This evening I received a letter from Cap. Kennerly saying the man whom we had sent to inquire the cause of delay of the Chickesaws, & Choctaws, returned on Saturday, with a letter from Colbert, Principal Chief of the Chickesaws, saying that they and the Choctaws had decided not to go on the exploring expedition until next March. The reasons assigned by him for this conclusion were, it had become so late in the season that cold weather wo [ul] d overtake them, and there would be no grass for horses, it would be severe on the men, and the ground would be covered with snow so that, its quality could not be determined. They said that they had received no orders to march from the war Department, and knew nothing of the time to go, &c. until our express arrived.

Blake who came in the other day with the Creeks, saw the Agent & Subagent of the Chickasaws, on his way. He said they were at variance with each other on the subject.

It is hardly possible that the Sec. War has omitted to give them notice of the time to start-more probable that he wrote orders to the Agent, who is the proper medium and that he, unwilling that the Indians should go, and ultimately remove, and he would lose his salary of $1600 pr. annum, had never informed the Indians.

Monday August 18
I went into St. Louis, and found that Mr. Blake had expressed an opinion that if he could visit those Indians he could yet bring them this fall. He was much inclined to make the trial. Genl. Clark and Cap. Kennerly seemed willing he should.

I could not approve the course because I did not believe Blake would succeed. If he should, it would be six weeks before he could return, during all that time all who were already here must lay by at great expense and much trouble to some of us on account of the disposition of the Indians to drink. Should Blake not bring the Indians, it would then be too late for our Indians to make the tourTherefore after all the expense of this summer's work nothing would be done, and the Indians who had come this far would return to their homes disappointed and displeased.

I thought that those of us who had already arrived had better proceed, then the business so far as related to them would be done, and let the others make the tour next Spring as they proposed. To going next spring all seemed opposed. They said the flies, high waters, and mires would render it almost impracticable. I plead that I travelled in the wilderness at all seasons. And if they set out next Spring, they would have time to extend the rout[e] as far as they pleased, whereas to go late this fall, their time would be limitted by the approach of winter.

BARNES: EXPLORING EXPEDITION OF 1828 239

However, when I saw their determination to send again for those Indians, I proposed proceeding on a tour of six weeks, the time they supposed it would require to bring those from the south, with our five Indian:. If on my return I met the Southern deputations, send home our Puawatomies, and Ottawas, and I would turn about and make a second tour. If this could not be allowed, I thought our Indians had better go home now. It would cost less for us to make this tour now, and then discharge our Indians, than to lay by here six weeks and then make the tour.

This course was approved by Genl. Clark & Cap. Kennerly, but a difficulty arose out of the circumstance of the Sec. of War having directed that none should move until the Chickasaws arrived. On this account neither Genl. Clark nor Cap. Kennerly will assume the responsibility of giving me direct instructions to go. I therefore take upon myself the entire responsibility of this measure.

Dr. Todson [12] also pleads that he cannot go without order to that effect given in direct terms.

I shall hire two young men to assist, and take in an interpreter about 250 miles from this. I sent out to have 12 horses brought in for shoeing, while I remain in town to prepare for the expedition.

Mr. Blake started in a steam boat this afternoon. His three Creeks & interpreter have gone out to spend the six weeks at our place in the country.

St. Louis August 19
Our people brought in the horses, and two of the Creeks Tuesday came with them. The Creeks and Chandonois got into a notion of drinking, and gave me much trouble. I had a hard days work of it, procuring my out-fit, &c. I started some of the Indians home before me. It-was almost sundown when I and two of them left St. Louis- We then had 13 miles to ride. The drunken part had went ahead of the rest. I overtook the companies in different places, the last were the drunkards who had stopped at a whiskey house 4 miles from ours. They had slept in the yard. I alighted to search for whiskey but could find none and the wretch who lives by this base traffic after receiving a very severe reprimand from me, which he did with great submission, for selling whiskey to our people, declared they had drank only water there. Some of them were unwilling to leave the house but I insisted, and took them with me. One of the Creeks gave me much trouble. He fell off his horse two or three times.

240 THE KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

Wednesday Aug. 20.
preparing to start- Genl. Clark sent me the following instructions, for which I am very thankful. Cap Kennerly also has given me a number of introductory letters to persons on the frontiers.

Superintendency of Indian Affairs
St. Louis, Aug. 20, 1828
Revd. I. McCoy
Dr. Sir

As the exploring party of Chickasaws is not expected before the 20th of next month, & should they arrive will not be in advance of this state until the 1st of October, and as the Putawatomies & Ottawas who accompanied you to this place are unwilling to delay, I would, in accordance with your suggestions recommend that you proceed with your party, and explore a portion of the country purchased of the Osage & Kansas West of the State of Missouri, & between the Osage & Shawanoe reservations, and north of the Kansas Reservation, taking care not to go so far west as to endanger your party by falling in with war parties of the Panie,13 and other Tribes who are at War with the Osage & Kansas.

The Indian Agents in your direction are informed of your movements & will afford you every aid & assistance in their power.

You will take Noel Mongrain a half-breed Osage, who is acquainted with the country,-the routes of the Indians, & speaks the Osage & Kansas languages.

I must request the favor of you to write to me from Harmony Mission,14 & on your return to Camp Leavenworth, or the out settlements, & state your views & wishes, that I may be enabled to afford such aid as may be necessary. Accept the assurance of my best wishes.

Yours sincerely
Wm. Clark

1828 Thursday 21 August 21
Interpreter, five Indians and two hired white men in all 9. We have 12 horses, one of which is to place an interpreter &, guide on, whom we expect to take from Harmony mission Station. We are all armed with guns, and besides I have a brace of horse pistols. We proceeded 14 miles & spent the night at Fishwaters'. The men lodged in their tents, but I lodged in the house.

Friday Aug. 21.
We nooned in the woods, & lodged in our tents, near a house where we obtained some food for ourselves, but could not obtain a grain of corn for our horses, though we sent two of our men to another house in the neighborhood

BARNES: EXPLORING EXPEDITION OF 1828 241

Saturday August 23
We stopped in a little village-Union, obtained breakfast and a feed for our horses. Nooned in the woods- In the afternoon met a man in the wilderness going 13 miles to mill, & prevailed on him to let us have about one bushel of corn for which I gave him 75 cts. This was all the grain we had for our horses at camp at night.

Sunday Aug. 24
We proceeded from Camp about 4 miles and pitched our tents about ¼ of a mile from a solitary and wretched hut, at which we obtained a little food for ourselves, but none for our horses.

After breakfast, and the morning Service I laid down to rest & fell asleep, In the course of an hour & a half I arose and discovered that my beast was absent from the company. I immediately sent a young man on horseback in pursuit of her. He instead of pursueing the road we had come, listened to an idle story of the woman of the house and went in search of the beast in a direction of all the others the least promising. I had but just started this man when I mounted a horse myself and taking Chandonois, went in pursuit. The man at the house had that moment returned from the rout[e] the beast went-said two travellers had stopped at the farther side of a prarie a mile distant, to feed their horses- They had told him that the beast had passed them, but the man who had come along the road had not met her. We proceeded in a gallop and passed the men before they had set off. They told me the beat had not been gone more than 15 minutes, & that she went. directly along the road. We galloped on, believing she would stop where we had encamped the night before, and had fed the horses on the ground.

But she had not passed that way, we returned and kept three or four persons searching for her till dark Beleiving that the two men who had seen her had caught her and concealed her in the wood.. We thought so because, they stopped at an undesirable place 20 graze or feed-no traveller acquainted with the road as they were, would have stopped there-because they could see a long distance back if any one was persueing the beast, because it was not likely that the beast would so soon have left theirs especially as they were feeding, ours being hungry for grain-because she would not likely have left the road. We suspected the man near whose house we had stopped for having a hand in it, and we set three men to watch his house. They watched until some time in the night thinking he might go out in the night to convey the beast further off. But they

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made no discoveries. Those two men whom we had suspected had but two horses, yet our men discovered three places where horses had been fed, hence we inferred that one place was where they had caught our beast.

I scolded some about the carelessness of the men while I was asleep.

Monday August 25 1828
Those two suspected men said they were going to a certain house on the road- This evening a man overtook us who had lodged at the same house, and said the men had not been there. I am confirmed in the opinion that they stole the beast and conveyed her away in the night. I regret the loss much. I had bot. her myself, and for my own use on the tour.

We nooned at the usual hour, and sleep I know not where.

Tuesday Aug. 26.
Sent some hunters ahead early, but without success. One killed one Turkey. Rested at noon-reached the house of a white man near which we encamped-& of whom we obtained corn for our horses, & our Suppers. We are on Gasconade river, about 40 miles below the mills.

Wednesday Aug. 27
I bought a horse of Harrison for $45. By Banson of St. Louis who has travelled a day with us, I wrote to a number of persons respecting our lost beast, requesting aid in her recovery, and offering a reward of $10. We found a house at which we obtained something to eat for ourselves & horses. Encamped on a branch of Gasconade.

Thursday Aug. 28
Our new horse attempted to escape I sent two men after him before day who caught him in the course of a few miles-found another house today at which we obtained food for selves & horses. Encamped on the waters of grand Auglaize, a branch of the Osage river.

Our Indians have daily tried to take some game but the grass and bushes are so high and thick that they had taken nothing larger than one turkey-Until dark this evening, Gosa brought in a young bear, and reported that he had wounded the dam. This circumstance has raised the Spirits of them all.

Friday Aug. 29.
Three men went out & brought in the bear shot last night or rather the hams & shoulders-and even these were scarcely eatible-it was so lean.

On leaving our camp Noonday carefully covered the feet & some other pieces of the bears that were left, with brushes at the root of a

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tree. When I asked the reason for this Chandonois answered it was the Indian fashion-that the bear in the symetry of its person so much resembled a human being that they were deemed a species of man, and on this account it was becoming in us to bury the remains of such as we killed.

Yesterday we met in the wilderness a fair delicate looking youth in Shirt and panteloons, hat and moccasins. I made some inquiries respecting the way, and he did the same of me. At one o'clock today we reached a house on Osage river & learnt that the youth was a female who lived five miles below, who had taken it into her head, without letting the cause be known, to escape from her father's house in this disguise. Her parents were absent. Her friends had searched for her, particularly in the river supposing she had killed herself- They at length noticed that some of her brothers' clothes were missing, and thought they had discovered her track. Their first inteligence of her was received from us. She had told me she was going to Gasconade. She had 25 miles to walk to the 1st house and about the same distance to the next.

Soon after leaving St. Louis we fell into a poor hill country exceedingly stony. The stones in the road remarkably severe on our horses feet-They are all square & pointed. They diminish in size from the very large rocks down to those of the size of a pea, and all the smaller resemble stone broken by the hammer for making a turnpike-none assume a globular form. They are generally white flint. Among these sterile hills a few people are scattered, most of whom seem to have taken pains to settle remote from every body else. It is not surprising that such inhabitants should be less moral & refined than in many other countries, and that among them a female could undertake an exploit which would scarcely be ventured upon by her sex elsewhere.

We crossed Osage river at 12 o'clock, nooned on travois Creek & ascended and encamped on the same.

Saturday Aug. 30.
Just as I was ready to leave camp an old white man one of the few in this wilderness, came to request some medicine for a son sick of a fever, for which he said he had nothing to pay. I sent on the company, except one, unpacked a horse to get at the medicine and gave what I deemed appropriate. We had encamped near a family of free blacks, one of whom I hired to pilot us 11 miles. Here we intersected a waggon road leading from the settlements on Missouri river to Harmony Mission Station. Had we crossed Missouri at St. Charles & ascended on the north side

244 THE KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

and re-crossed at Jefferson City we should have had a settled country all the way except about [blank in MS.] miles of the road we are now on. Today we left the poor hilly country and have entered a beautiful, rolling, healthy looking region, delightfully varied with praries & wood-lands. We nooned at a creek, and encamped a little before night on account of water. Our hunters killed two turkies and a squirril, and wounded two deer neither of the latter was found.

Sunday Aug. 31
We rest in our tents-attend the usual religious services of the day. Had rain till noon. The weather has been very warm since we left. St. Louis, and it is now the most sickly and unpleasant season of the whole year in these regions, yet. my health, and that of all the company are preserved. I find myself, however, growing home-sick & impatient. The Indians also feel too much so. It is discouraging to us all, to be detained so long from entering the country we came to see. I feel anxiety about my people & place at home- Lord take care of them and me!

Monday Sep. 1.
passed without any noticeable occurrence. Encamped on Grand river. Tuesday Sep. 2
In haste to get on to the Mission Station, did not unsaddle at noon. Near night reached the Harmony mission. Sorry that three of the missionaries were absent. Was treated with kindness by those at the place-pleased to see the place, apparantly & without doubt consecrated to promote the interests of religion, & especially among the poor Indians. If from appearances I was to Judge, I would say the preference in praise of the management should be given to the female department- This has been obvious at other stations as well as this. While females labour in more obscurity than the other sex & under greater trials & discouragements they, I believe, usually perform their part best.

At this place we had expected to furnish ourselves with supplies for 30 days. But such is the state of things that to our grief, we are told that we can obtain of flour no more than 30 pounds. The only alternative appears to be parched corn. I have stated the case to our company, and all declare their willingness to encounter the journey, and be satisfied with the fare. And say the flour shall be saved for me, while they will live on corn.

Wednesday Sep. 3 1828.
I saw Noel Mograin an old man of 65-a half Osage. speaks French-but English imperfectly. He agreed to go with me as interpreter & guide, but insisted that I should take

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another old Osage. He said he had not expected to go the rout[e] I vas taking-that he was not well acquainted with the country. I at length consented to take the other old man. I inquired where his horse was, when Mograin pointed to the old man's legs and said there was his horse, one he had used many years. Our tent is pitched about half a mile from the mission on account of grass. Attended a prayer with the missionaries having breakfasted & dined with Mr. & Mrs. Austin-& drank tea with Mrs. Jones.

Thursday Sep. 4
At day light a poor wretched Osage woman came to camp sat down by our fire, & set up a hideous crying or howling. This we understand to be her method of begging. We had nothing to give, except a little of our food.

To our joy we obtained 69 pounds of flour instead of 30, & 100 lb. corn meal-this with our corn we hope will be such as we can do with tolerably well. We procured pork, & salt, but no sugar-we have partly a supply of our old stock. From this place I have, in obedience to instruction, written to Genl. Clark- Wrote also to Mr. Bolles & to my wife- I have been exceedingly hurried since I arrived here. Am much fatigued, and some distressed for want of sleep.

About 9 oclock we set off-our company now consisting of 11 persons-with 13 horses & Mograin's dog. Our old Osage had agreed to walk. He had Deerskin Moccasins and leggings, and the usual sloth, but was destitute of shirt, or any covering for head or body above the loins. Even hair on his head was scarce. He carried an old gun which I had had repaired for him, a horn and pouch & an additional pair of moccasins. His blanket, which was a mere rag, was thrown across his shoulder under his gun. A small bag that would contain a pint containing his smoking apparatus, was hitched under the belt of his cloth. Thus this almost naked old man of 60 set out on a six week's tour. We steered a little north of west, and soon were without any road.

The weather which had been very hot since we left St. Louis, became cool on Sunday night. on Monday it was almost disagreeably cold in the praries. Tuesday night and Wednesday night there fell white frosts which has killed the vegetation considerably.

The season has been so exceedingly dry in this country that vegetation has become so dried that we can see the praries burning in two or three directions at the same time.

About noon we passed two Osage women, a girl, 2 boys, & two infants They had three small horses, on one was seated a naked

246 THE KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

child of a year and a half old, and led by the mother. On another was seated the girl-and on the third, a mother naked above the loins, & scarcely covered any where, and carrying in her arms a naked infant. the hairs of all hung loosely. The above description approaches near enough to that of the others. The boys were naked -one carried an old gun, & the other a bow. These wretched people were going in search of roots. In our Lake country the men & children are commonly naked in summer, but the females wear shirts. Most of the Osage women I have seen have been destitute of shirt.

We did not stop until evening when we encamped on the Miry DeSeinor Miry Swan riverl5-which is the main branch of Osage river. A sluggish, muddy stream, though we are encamped on a limestone bank, & at a pretty ripple.

We have now left the State of Missouri, & entered the Territories west. It therefore becomes my duty to describe the country through which we pass. So far it is a beautiful rolling prarie country, happily diversified with streaks of woodlands. Limestone appears on the sides of hills, and in the rivulets.

This evening I was attacked with Dysentery. But had been so much fatigued with my two past day's labour, that when I could obtain a moment's rest, I slept soundly. At 3 oclock in the morning took a potion of Rheubarb & Magnesia.

Friday Sep 5.
Was not able to leave camp befor half past 9, & then scarcely able to sit on my horse. I had noticed yesterday that Mograin manifested some fears that our old Osage would desert us. He often stopped and looked back to see if the old man was on the way. We lent the old fellow a blanket to sleep on last night, & this morning informed him that he should ride part of the time. We had proceeded about a mile & a half, when we noticed that he was not in company. Mograin went back in quest of him, and fearing we should lose Mograin too, I sent Gosa back with him. By his track they discovered he had retraced our steps-but they returned to us without him. I encouraged Mograin that we should get along well enough, & so proceeded. ½ past ten reached a large creek, which was muddy, and detained us an hour & a half in finding a crossing. At 3 oclock crossed another large creek near its Junction with Miry Desein and being very feeble and sick, encamped on the former. Passed thro. a fine Limestone country as yesterday. In a few instances sand stones appear. The timber on

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this river appears to be about a mile in width, & that along each large creek half a mile- On smaller branches less-and consisting chiefly of oak & hickory, with sometimes walnut & ash &c. The prarie bottom lands are usually covered with a beautiful grass for hay-but we seldom find a quagmire. We ascended a high natural naked mound from which we saw the country on both sides up the river stocked with timber sufficient for support of a tolerably dense population.

The nature of the soil of the praries may be compared with those on the Illinois river, and generally in the western parts of Illinois State. On the uplands, hills rise up to considerable hight, round, oblong, &c. &c. exhibiting a singular appearance, because each seems to dwell alone, and because in general they are destitute of timber. These hills are peaks of Stone, which appear on the sides-not in large masses, and sometimes on their summits.

Deer are plenty. Yesterday our men had several shoots, as they rose and run before us, but took nothing except a squirril killed for me. Today Chandonois had killed a goose & a turkey before we encamped.

Saturday Sep 6.
Left camp at 7. Hunters last evening & this morning unsuccessful. At 9, passed where some Sauks settled three years ago, but left again in compliance with the requisition of the Osages. We saw at a distance three or four of their old deserted buts. About 11 oclock I thought we were leaving the main river. I therefore turned to the left & descended a steep stony hill to the stream which was our guide. Mograin said it was the main Osage river. I did not think so, but as three of our men were out hunting, & fearing they would find difficulty in overtaking us, we went back into the prarie again and waited till they arrived having twice fired guns for them. When they came up I told Mograin that I believed the river lay more to the southwest, I therefore went ahead-went directly across the stream he had called the main river, & proceeded southwest until we reached the main river. We then turned back into the praries again & proceeded till camping time. I made several attempts to get to the river in which we were prevented by stony bluffs. At a half past 5, we crossed and encamped on the south bank. Four hunters afterwards came up all unsuccessful except the taking of one turkey. My health somewhat improved but I am still afflicted with bowel complaint, and am weak, tho. not in much pain. Wood today has been more abundant than heretofore. High lands coming in nearer the rivers and creeks the timber often

248 THE KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

stretching out on to the hills. The hills more abrupt on the sides, from their tops spread out a beautiful rolling country. Slopes that wash, steep side hills, and all water courses, disclose a bed of limestone. The stone in appearance may be compared with the condition of limestone in the limestone lands of the middle counties of Kentucky. The soil is almost universally rich-darker than the timbered rich lands of Ky. and possesses the mellowness peculiar to limestone lands. The river, and Creeks here, though still too sluggish, are stony, and more clear than below. Springs we have seen none, along the river & creeks are fertile bottoms of timbered lands, covered with oak, ash, hackberry, walnut, hickory, honey locust &c. &c. But these bottoms in too many instances are subject to inundation.

Sunday Sep. 7 1828
We remain in camp on the south bank of Miry Desein or the Osage river. Attend the usual religious services. But regret that the state of our provisions requires hunting. Three men went out and by 9 oclock brought in two deer, which is an acceptable & ample supply.

The river here passes about as much water only as would move a common grist mill. In most of the large creeks the water has been merely standing, and all the smaller branches are entirely dry. We have not seen a single spring of water.

Monday Sep. 8
I took Gosa early & rode into the prarie about three miles in order to view a tract of land three parts surrounded by timber. We are encamped in a bottom of excellent woodland. During our excursion the company had prepared to move. We heartily breakfasted & at ½ past 9 set off recrossed the river, and in a few miles bore to the left to see if we were following the main river, or a tributary. Mograin and Chandonois both inclined to think it was the main river. It was indeed little less, but discharged not more than a 4th so much running water. I steered directly across it & at 5 or 6 miles distance ascended a Naked hill, whence we could observe the course of the river. About one oclock in a woodland crossed a branch that a man could step across, about half a mile from its source in prarie in which was wholesome water with small fish in it, indicating that it had not been dry this exceeding drought. A mile & a half further crossed another similar rivulet with running water. Towards camping time bore towards the river, found it so exceedingly difficult descending a large creek, on account of grass, vines, &c. that we halted at 5. & I took Wesauogana, & went on foot

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and found the river in less than half a mile. Here the discharge of water is not quite sufficient. at this time for a grist mill. It is a large creek in the Spring season. Its waters have assumed a wholesome appearance- Its bed, as also all those of the Creeks & rivulets, is limestone.

Timber today has been rather more plenty than heretofore, and we have passed over the same fertile, rolling, limestone kind of country that we did on Saturday last. My health much improved.

Tuesday Sep. 9
We left camp at a quarter past 8. In the course of about two miles happened on a fine Spring of water running out from limestone rocks. At noon crossed a large creek running along side a steep hill of limestone. Here we stopped half an hour and ate a bite. Timbered bottom half a mile wide, very rich, covered heavily with black walnut, hickory, honey locust-[MS. illegible], oak, some [MS. illegible] tree, mulberry, &c. Afterwards crossed two small creeks each affording water but not running. At 4 reached a large creek, spent an hour in finding a crossing, & at 5 encamped on its west bank. The bottoms of all the creeks wide and rich. The creeks this afternoon more muddy, less stone & less current than yesterday. Timber about the same as yesterday, land the same though with less stone to be seen. The country in which we encamped last night, I supposed to be well watered with Springs.

Wednesday Sep. 10.
Left camp a quarter after 8. In the course of four miles crossed two small branches with considerable water, but no perceivable current. At one of them a sandstone rock appeared in the side hill. At one o'clock dined at a rocky creek. Water is now found in most of the rivulets so that it is not necessary to mention each occurrence. Timber was about the same as heretofore until towards noon, when, being near the source of the river, the quantity diminished. Untill at 5 we encamped at the last little grove on the stream we were following up. We had taken this as the main stream which we afterwards found was a mistake. Passed the same kind of high, rolling, limestone, fertile country as heretofore. By my map I had for three parts of the day supposed we were near the road leading from St. Louis to Santa Fee. Unwilling that our trail should be seen on that road, Chandonois and I kept ahead of the company. Seen much sign of Elk, and in the evening Gosa fired on one in a gang of eleven. After camping sent a man back to watch till dusk if any one was following our trail. At 11 we had crossed a large trail made a few days ago, but as it went north it gave us no uneasiness. Did not unstop the bells till morning.

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Thursday Sep. 11
I took Chandonois and early went forth to look for the Santa Fee road, which we found at the distance of about three miles. We left camp at half past 9, In the course ofabout three miles crossed the stream marked on the map as the river, proceedednorth west several miles and crossed the main stream, and proceeded west up the river on the south side and encamped at 5. We have crossed many small streams today, generally with water in them. High country as before, less stone, land rich, but timber scarce. Only a small patch seen here & there, besides that on the river, which is sufcient to admit of a farm to about every three fourths of a mile along the river.

By my map, the measurement of the Santa Fe road, made our encampment last night eighty one miles west of the state of Missouri. We have travelled since we left Harmony mission seven days, we suppose at an average of 24 miles per day making in our turnings 168 miles. Several deer fired on today as they ran, none killed. Magaukwuk found bees in a tree near camp & climbed and cut with a Tomahawk & took considerable honey. The praries are burning a few miles above us, whence we infer that a hunting party is near.

We find it often difficult to get through the briers, brush, & vines along the small streams. Sometimes we use the knife and sometimes the Tomahawk in opening our way through. We keep much in praries where, excepting the water courses, travelling is fine.

I have for myself, a lonesome time. No one is with me who feels interested in the enterprize beyond his own immediate comfort, or with whom I can indulge as an associate. The Indians are exceedingly careless and improvident. Willing to do anything I tell them, but will not put themselves to the trouble of thinking. Like children, some of them think the distance great and appear to be somewhat home-sick. I almost daily show them on the map where we are, and whither we are going. Were it not for this, some would be ready to fancy themselves near the edge of the World. Upon the whole, however, they are generally cheerful. The two white men hired as packmen &c. are poor sticks & give me trouble. Scarce a day passes that I have not to reprove one of them, and sometimes threaten to discharge them there in the wilderness, I think however, that they are rather improving in their ways. Chandonois performs his part well, and is my main dependence.

Friday Sep. 12.
Our venison being exhausted, I informed the men that we must lie here until they could take more. Four hunters went out early & remained till after seven without even seeing any

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game. This is remarkable since it has been so plenty in the country through which we have travelled, We suppose the cause is the proximity of Hunters, which has made the game scarce. Hunting & rain made it half past ten before we left camp. We proceeded Southwest in order to find a branch of Neosho river. Travelled thro. prarie. It rained on us considerably. At the distance of about 12 miles reached the stream we sought, a large creek with deep water, but at a ripple, at which we cross [ed] there was not enough running water to turn a common grist mill. Timber today seen only in small patches until we came to this stream. Here might be a farm on each side of the river at the distance of half a mile. The country high, and very rich, stone less. We encamped on the southwest hank, at 3 oclock, after our men had shot four raccoons on one oak tree which they had ascended for the sake of the fruit, one of which was lost in the river.

Sent out three hunters who returned at dark without game. Our company, except myself supped bountifully on their raccoons.

We have now left the Osage river. The water in it and its tributaries is too stagnant. Streams for mills are abundant, but mills would be still in the dry season of the year. From our Saturday's encampment upward-a distance of 70 miles on a straight line, there can be no want of spring & well water. below spring water appeared scarce, Timber is in plenty to admit a tolerably dense population for 75 miles west of Missouri State afterwards more scarce. The country promises health, except on the immediate banks of the larger streams, where it will be subject to Agues & fevers. The soil is almost universally fertile, and the whole supplied abundantly with limestone. It is the most sightly country I ever saw. I have seen no coal, but have not had time to search. I examined two banks which at a distance appeared to contain coal, but they were slate.

Saturday Sep. 13
Sent out two hunters who returned unsuccessful. Left camp a [t] half past 8. proceeded southwest in order to reach another large branch of Neosho. In the course of 4 miles we crossed a pretty large creek in which Wesauogana shot a fish, as they said, for my supper. This creek is pretty much wooded, two other streams with timber are in sight, so that the country here will allow a tolerable settlement. We had left the creek about a mile when a large gang of Elk about 20 in number were discovered. A halt was called, and a brief council held, the result of which was that I & the two pack-men returned to the creek with six horses and all the baggage, and the other seven men, thus lightened, went on

252 THE KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

horseback in quest of the Elk, & while we wait by the baggage I make this note.

At dusk our hunters returned, having taken one elk, and having enjoyed fine sport in chasing and shooting. No set of men could be better pleased than were those. And I was not much less so, for we were in want of meat, and I was very desirous that they should be allowed thus to enjoy themselves. This circumstance will go further in commending the country to them than a million of acres of rich land. Sunday We remain in camp. The men happy that they have Sep. 14 meat and marrow bones to the full. Religious Services morning and evening as usual on Sundays.

Monday Sep. 15.
Rose at daylight & left camp at 7 oclock. The wolves stole some of our elk meat last night, but we still have as much as we can take with us. We had proceeded a few miles when we discovered an Elk, all the men joined in the effort, to take him except Mograin & I. Four of them fired at him, but he escaped unhurt, for which I was not sorry as we should have been unable to save the meat. Saw a wolf, & again saw an Antelope, an animal few of us had ever before seen. Shawaunukwuk tried to take him but failed. At half past One reached a large branch of Neosho, which might be compared with St. Marys at Fort Wayne, though something larger. My map appears to be incorrect so that I am not able to decide which branch of Neosho this is. I supposed it to be a middle fork, but Mograin says it is the main Southern branch. We ate a little, and turned to the N. West & encamped on a large creek not many miles from the main river. We travelled W. S. W. until we reached this stream. On Thursday we beleived we travelled 15 miles, on Friday 12 miles, Saturday 4, and this day 27 miles. Gosa shot deer a little before we encamped. We crossed many small creeks today. The country to our left sufficiently timbered to admit a good settlement, but to our right was chiefly prarie. We passed over the same kind of high, limestone, rich country that I have heretofore described, water found in almost all watercourses, even those that are very small. The Bottom lands of this river appear to be full three miles wide. Deer abundant, elk sign plenty.

We had rain today which is disagreeable enough in these praries. About the time we reached the river, we crossed a trail of foot men going south, might suppose them to be 20 or 30 in number. Sign not recent. Supposed by Mograin to be a war party gone against his people, who mostly reside on this river below.

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Tuesday Sep. 16.
Left camp quarter after 8. proceeded up the creek on which we had s[l]ept, north, about 9 crossed & passed between forks of nearly equal size, Saw three antelopes lying on the side of the hill, stopped the company & three went to take them, but failed. These animals appear remarkably nimble in running. At 11 reached the Santa Fe road, and followed it eastward. Halted at a creek between 12 and one. I wished to ascertain at what point on the road we were and must therefore return until I find distances to correspond with the map. But in following the trail I left the surveyors marks, the latter being that only which would explain the map; we left the trail & bore N. east, separating, in order to find the mounds raised by the surveyors, but we did not succeed, then, bore due east. Near 5 oclock, an elk was discovered a little beyond the creek on which we intended to encamp. The men went in chase, there was a large flock, some of them ran near us. They killed a very large male Elk & one wounded a large Deer. The elk they pronounced too lean & old for use, tho. in fact it was pretty good, but we were not in great want, & brought only the horns to camp. This elk chasing kept us till nearly dark before we encamped. Our Indians are wonderfully delighted with their evening's sport.

Mograin is a good natured, simple old man, of no manner of use to us than to add one to our number, & to be our interpreter should we come in contact with Osages or Kanzas, unless we add his capacity for lightening the loads of the packhorses which carry the provision. He says he never before travelled through this country which we are exploring. I am my own pilot solely. Yesterday we recrossed the Indian trail which we crossed on monday, & which Mograin pronounced the trail of a war party. Today I alighted and examined the trail myself and found it to be made in part by horses-am sure therefore it is not the track of a war party, but of a hunting party, no doubt of Kanzas as it comes from that direction.

The country today not quite so well timbered as heretofore, though sufficiently so to allow considerable population. In respect to soil, limestone, and situation, it resembles what we have heretofore described.

Wednesday Sep. 17.
Four men went to search for the Deer wounded yesterday, but did not find him. It was near 10 before we could leave camp. We proceeded east until we again reached the Santa Fe road, which we kept until I supposed I had ascertained the point at which we were, which was 122 miles, due west, from the western boundary of State of Missouri. Here we steered north,

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from 12 till five o'clock, when we encamped as I beleived on the waters of Ne[os]ho which we had descended about two miles. Poor old Mograin is fairly lost, and supposed we were here on the waters of a large Creek we crossed the third day's travel from Harmony.

This day's journey lying across the land dividing Neosho & Osage rivers from Kanzas, I had expected to find the country almost wholly destitute of wood. In this I have been happily disappointed. Timber is more scarce than formerly but the country will admit a tolerable settlement the whole way. The country rises to the dividing lands. Then descends towards Kanzas. Still high, rich, and abounding in limestone. One of our horses lame, so that one man has to walk. Tuesday we travelled, we suppose 17-today 20.

We have now left Neosho waters, which country needs no other description than to say it resembles that on the Osage, rather less timber, & perhaps better watered. It may justly be pronounced an excellent country so far as I saw it.

Thursday Sep. 18.
Left camp before 8. In an hour's ride fell in with a Kanza hunting, by whom learnt we were not far from a village. We found much difficulty in crossing a large Creek & some other branches. On the top of a high natural mount we discovered an artificial mound of stone, apparantly constructed from the same principles on which our earthen mounds are to the east.

Coming in sight of two houses about two miles from the principal village, the inhabitants became alarmed, some of the women & children hid in the brush, and one man came running to a wood towards us for the purpose of securing his horses. He did not reach his horse until we were within fifty yards of him. I sent Mograin to speak to him who soon allayed his fears. We halted to take some refreshment half a mile from the houses, & sent the man, with some tobacco to inform the main village that we were coming to smoke with them. A woman presently came from the two houses with a kettle of boiled corn. After an hour we proceeded and after much delay to wait Mograin's tedious, & tiresome talkativeness to every one of the many Indians that met us, we encamped a mile & a half from town & went upon foot to talk, leaving the baggage in charge of the two hired men. At camp and every where else, men, women, children & dogs swarmed about us. We were shown into a large bark hut, which was immediately crowded as thick as it could be, with exception of a little room at each fire, such a scene of crowding, of men women & children, talking, scolding, crying of children, a few good mothers singing to quiet them, dogs fighting & the con-

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quered begging aloud for quarters, I never before witnessed. Boiled corn in two large wooden bowls, supplied with a few Buffalos horn spoons & ladles, were placed before us.

Sixteen Pawnees had been there, who on hearing of our approach had left except three. I enquired for them, & as they were in a hurry to be gone, I gave them some tobacco, and a little friendly talk, to which they replied in similar friendship, and they departed. The Pawnees & Osages are hostile to each other. The Kanzaus are identified in language & friendship with the Osages. They are indeed a band of the same tribe, they are afraid of the Pawnees, but appear to dread them less than do their brethren. I suppose these Pawnees thought I had some Osages in company, & on this account left as they did, leaving three of their numbers to learn the circumstances of our visit &c.

We smoked with the Kanzaus, & gave them some tobacco, & a little friendly talk. We were obliged to extend our voices in order to be heard amidst the continued noise & confusion.

I then went to view the river. I should judge it to be over a quarter of a mile wide at this place, deep, the water of a milky appearance, & running slowly between sand banks. It much resembles Missouri, tho. so much less, & is less rapid, & muddy. It passes between pretty high hills, & the country, as might be expected, is more broken & hilly near the river. The land fertile, no limestone seen, but. plenty of freestone, Timber too scarce but sufficient to allow a very considerable population.

It was dark when I reached camp, the principal Chief & his wife both aged people, and many others came to camp. I had the chief to eat supper with me, gave his wife also, and a little to some others, gave the chief two or three pounds of flour at his request. And on preparing for rest, they all left us. One old fellow on our arrival had offered his service to assist in the work, &c. We accepted his offer merely for his gratification, & rewarded him with food & tobacco.

The Kanzas appear to be more wretched than even the Osages. Men generally naked with exception of the small cloth & sometimes a blanket thrown over their shoulders. The women with a ragged piece of cloth about the middle, and some of them with a narrow piece of cloth passing awry over one shoulder & under the other arm, to conceal the breasts, which is commonly held over them with one hand. But many of the women were wholly uncovered above the waist & below the knee. Boys entirely naked, girls, with a piece of

256 THE KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

cloth about the middly. They were much pleased with our visit, & very friendly.

I am instructed to pass thro. the country north of this river; but, it is remarkable that, I cannot hear of one single canoe, or other craft for crossing anywhere on the river. These people, if ever they cross, swim or cross on rafts, With my lazy company I do not think we should be able to construct rafts, & get ourselves, &c. across in less than four days. I cannot lose this time. Indeed the time allowed me is so far gone that I must bend my course towards St. Louis. This is the upper Indian town on the river, & consists of about 15 houses. It is 125 miles due west of Missouri State.

Friday Sep. 19
Left camp before 8, took a road down the river, a few miles from it, towards other villages. In the course of 10 miles passed between two small villages, travelling a little north of east. At one oclock, stopped to dine, sent some tobacco to the principal Kanzau village, now in sight, say 7 miles off, by two Indians who have accompanied us from above. While we left the road & bore south east, in order to see the country on some large creek, which lay before us, and, to endeavor to procure some meat. It was dusk when we reached a suitable camping place.

We had travelled five or six miles after we parted with the messenger sent with tobacco to the village, when an Indian came riding to us at full speed, from the village, which now must have been seven or eight miles distant, He was entirely naked from head to heels except the breech cloth. Had no other business he said than to get a little tobacco. This we gave him and went on. An old chief he said had started with him, but finding the chase too long had become discourage[d], & went back.

Timber of the Kanza river is sufficient to allow a dense settlement for four or five miles on each side. It appears well watered. Small creeks, & rivulets are numerous, and wooded, and watered.

Saturday Sep 20
The rain which commenced in the night continueing the men were not called up early. It was so wet that they seemed disinclined to hunt. Chandonois killed a turkey near camp, & at 10 we proceeded on our way, eastwardly crossed a large creek near camp. On this creek we find both limestone & free stone. The wind blew all day so severely that travelling in the prarie was almost impracticable. About the middle of the afternoon a violent wind and rain overtook us. We were favored in being at that moment in a wood, & being able to secure most of the baggage from wet.

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Six of the men were hunting three came to us half an hour after the storm. The other three were a little lost, but reached us afterwards with a fine deer. We are much favored by providence, in being allowed to stop at a place favourable for resting on tomorrow, being well supplied with grass for horses, and we are now well supplied with meat.

The country continues the same in appearance. Except that the lands, though excellent, I think are not quite so rich as on Neosho. Wood scattered in streaks & groves all over the country. We are now about 70 miles due west of State of Missouri, & 15 south of Kanza river Yesterday I suppose we travelled 30 miles, and today, 20.

Since we left Neosho, Mograin has said he supposed, from the circumstance of our seeing antelopes, &c. that we were near to the Buffaloe. He says he was afraid to tell us so at the time lest we should be inclined to go further west, which he was afraid to do, lest we should fall in with enemies. He had all along given it as his opinion that it was a long distance to Buffalos. The night we lay farthest west some ravens were croaking about us till pretty late in the evening. The old man said that from that circumstance he judged that enemies were near.

Sunday Sep. 21.
Remained in camp, religious Service morning & evening as usual on Sabbaths. Monday Sep. 22.
Left camp at 8 Steered eastwardly, but at length found the hills so steep & rocky, and the brush & vines so thick, that we bore to the south west in order to head some branches. We were in sight of Kanza river, tho. perhaps ten or 12 miles distant. About 12 oclock we fell into the Santa Fe road unexpectedly for, by the map the road at this place was 35 miles from the river, and we had been turned off from the river by the broken land which bordered there on. The road appears not to correspond with the map. We followed it till after 4, a south east, or rather S. S. east. course when we turned to the North east, found an encamping place & halted. While in the road we were on the dividing ridge between Kanza & Osage rivers. The country descended with gentle slopes toward Osage, but broke of[f] in abrupt hills towards Kanza. The hills are generally two or three times as high as the trees in the low grounds, very steep & rocky the vales covered with timber, stretching frequently to the tops of the hills. From the hilltops the land passes off beautifully rolling-level enough for cultivation. Between the

258 THE KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

hills on which we were & Kanza there appeared a large tract chiefly prarie, 150, or 200 feet lower than the hills. Along the hills facing Kanza is more wood than is common at the sources of the streams. We are encamped in a tract of woodland along side of which I think we have travelled ten miles. This woodland lies across the sources of many small rivulets. Wood today has been much more plenty than we have heretofore seen it. The country high, healthy, & rich with abundance of limestone. This excellent tract of Kanza land lies adjoining the better parts of Osage, which we were on about the 7th 8th & 9th September. Much sign of Elk & Deer, Hunters brought in three turkeys in the evening.

Tuesday Sep. 23
Left camp at 8 and by the compass travelled all day North east, stopped at 12 rested ¾ of an hour and encamped at 5. In the forenoon we had freestone, and land somewhat sandy, In the afternoon limestone. Crossed many small creeks, & lesser streams in all which was water. Country high & rich resembling the better part of Osage. Timber about as plenty as seen on the more plentiful days. Wednesday Left camp at quarter past eight. Rested ¾ an hour Sep. 24 at noon. Followed a trail made in the summer until about 11 oclock when we fell into an old Indian road which we kept until 3 oclock we reached the first Shawanoe village. The men mostly were absent, hunting, &c. We gave them some tobacco & proceeded to another settlement of Shawanoes on the line of Missouri. Sorry that Shane the Interpreter was absent. His wife, who is a member of the Church at Carey, was absent in the neighborhood. We pitched our tents a little way off.

After a few miles in the morning, wood has been plenty though it might be said that we were in the wood of the river, extending 8 or 10 miles therefrom, tho. not in a solid body. The country high & rich with Limestone in abundance

Travelled on Monday 27 miles-Tuesday 25-Wednesday 28.

I have now returned to the border of the Indian Territory. It is proper therefore to take a retrospect of our tour therein.

I have been favoured, in general with good health-have been favoured with pleasant weather, have been comfortably supplied with food, and not allowed to meet any material accident or loss. Our horses look nearly as well as when we left St. Louis.

The country we have explored, I am ready [to] pronounce excellent. It is admitted that timber is too scarce, but by a judicious

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arrangement in settlement, a vast population can be conveniently situated. There is great sameness in appearance of the country. High, rich, healthy in appearance, stone for building, & for lime in abundance. Water without scarcity all over the country, for common use of man & beast. Mill streams in abundance but all fail in the dry season. We might expect water-works to stand still for want of water, in general, 4 or 5 months in the year. There is scarcely a quagmire in all the country. I saw only one pond of water, & that covered about an acre of land. Most travellers seek the higher and more open lands, because it is exceeding troublesome getting thro. the timber, brush, & vines, along the watercourses. The hills rise generally once, twice, & thrice, as high as the trees in the low grounds. The sides of the hill are often abrupt, and on the top becomes sufficiently level for cultivation. On these accounts one may pass at a short distance from a grove of timber at a water course, the streak of wood one fourth, one half-or even a mile in width, and scarcely [MS. illegible] the bough of a tree. The country therefore has been reported to be more scarce of wood and water than is the fact. It is remarkable too that because there is but little timber on the uplands, travellers looking over prarie as far as sight could reach, have fancied the country to be level, when, if the whole country were timbered they would report it to be as high & rolling as the middle counties of Kentucky. The ri [vers?] are broader & the slopes of tillable land more gradual than generally in Kentucky.

Notwithstanding there is so little wet land in the country, yet grass for hay can be obtained in abundance especially on Osage & Neosho.

In settling the country, lands should be so laid out that to each home should be allowed 50 or 80 acres of wood-land, and then as much prarie back as should be necessary. Hogs will thrive in any country while new, but this country will not be particularly favourable to the growth of that kind of stock after the country becomes thickly settled, it is too high & open. It will always be remarkably well adapted to the growth of sheep & cattle. This will be the principal business of farmers. On the settling of Indians there, a small field to each will be sufficient. That is, a little larger than will, in that fertile soil, be enough to furnish his bread and vegetables. The extensive grazing & hay of the praries will supercede the necessity of farm pasturage and meadows.

I extended my tour west of Missouri State 140 miles on a direct

260 THE KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

line as measured on the map. Say 160 miles the nearest way that could be travelled, and within 60 miles as measured on the map, of the place where the Santa Fe road crosses Arkansas river, [16] and not more than 50 miles from that river at a point lower down. I think I have been enabled to form a pretty just estimate of the country 80 miles in width, and 150 from east to west, making 12,000 square miles or 7,680,000 acres. How much further west the country is inhabitable I am not able from observation to say.

The country of the Shawanoe, near the mouth of Kanzas river is best supplied with timber. On the upper branches of the creek of Kanzas named on the map Wahusa, [17] and opposite, south, & near thereto on Osage river, is the most desirable country for a good settlement, & in that region I am inclined to hope for a mission Station, & perhaps the seat of government of the Indian Territory, say from 30 to 70 miles due west of Missouri.

And now, O thou father of the fatherless & friend of the poor. Grant that in these deserts, where, with a few, I have been allowed the privilege of bowing the knee, and lisping a song, prayers & praises may arise from the thousands of a people Saved by Thee! and all the glory-all the Glory shall be Thine.

The Shawanoes arrived in this country last Spring late. They consist chiefly of about one half of those who resided at Waupaugkonetta in Ohio, some from Merimack, in this State, some from Lewistown, O. & elsewhere. With some aid from government, chiefly in food & clothing, & farming utensils, they are in three or four settlements or villages putting up with their own hands very neat log cabbins.

Thursday Sep. 25
Took breakfast with our sister Shane, happy to hear her of her own accord readily speak of religion, and lament that there was not much of anything like it in their country. I find too that she maintains an excellent character.

Mograin now chose to return home, & I had no further need of his services. I therefore paid him. But his horse had left the company last night, and having no bell on, could not be found this morning. I was anxious to proceed to the town of Liberty, to which place I had directed all my papers to be sent. At 11, 1 therefore took one man, and leaving the company to search for the horse, set out, crossed Missouri about six miles below the mouth of Kanza river. The Kanzas do not pronounce this as usually written. Their pro

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nunciation is truly Kan'-zau, & for Osages Wos-soshe'. We travelled 21 miles & reached Liberty at sun-setting. No news of the southern Indians. Seven letters from various members of my family, and one from Rev. Cone.18 Thankful to hear of the health & comfort of my family. Cone manifests his usual interest in our affairs, and assures me of his readiness to co-operate in carrying forward our designs.

Friday Sep. 26
I remained at Liberty. In the evening the company arrived having found Mograins horse. The old prophet & other Shawanoes called on our people after I left them and had considerable talk, some of our Indians accepted an invitation of the Shawanoes to attend a dance with them that night. I left tobacco for the Shawanoes, some of which I left in care of Shane.

Saturday Sep. 27
Left Liberty about 8 oclock and travelled about 28 miles to near Richmond (Martin's)

Sunday Sep. 28
Did not travel.

Monday Sep, 29
Set off at 7 crossed Missouri, travelled till 5, and made 32 miles. Lodged at Estis'.

Tuesday Sep. 30
Left at 7 oclock, travelled 32 miles to Shackleford's.

Wednesday Oct. 1
It was a half past 9 before we could be ready to travel, Crossed Missouri Near Chanton and reached Fayette sun an hour high. I sent the company on a few miles, as we had only travelled 21 miles today, and because it is unpleasant stopping them in a town where there is whisky, which Chandonois and the hired hands are as much inclined to drink, as the Indians.

Hoping that I and Mr. Lykins with our families will be able to come to this country next Spring for the purpose of commencing our missionary operations in the west. It is desirable that we, ere that time, have some place selected at which we may temporarily locate our families while we prepare houses for them in the wilderness, and that we have a friend to whose care we may, if we choose, direct some property. I had hoped to find an eligible situation nearer the frontier, but was discouraged in the attempt by the apparent sickliness of the country above. Pleased with the situation of this town and country I have stopped here tonight to attend to that business. I engaged Mr. Wm. Wright of this place, & he commends a Mr. Samuel of Franklin as consignee.

262 THE KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

Thursday Oct. 2.
I set off very early. In about 4 miles overtook my company, breakfasted with them and proceeded about in all today, 33 miles, to Wilburn's, where I stopped very much fatigued. I feel much worn down with my journeyings, and greatly in want of rest.

Friday Oct. 3
Resumed our journey at a half past six, and travelled 39 miles to McMurtry's.

Saturday Oct. 4.
Set off at 7 and made 42 miles, to Taylors. Today I met A. Shane, Interpreter for Shawanoes, on his way home. Sometime ago I heard that Shane was much dissatisfied with me. In my absence to the east in 1823-4 Mr. Polke, then a missionary, employed Shane to accompany him to see the Ottawas on Grand river, and encouraged Shane to expect a situation, in the mission which circumstances afterwards did not admit of. Shane left his place 40 miles east of Fort Wayne, & brought his wife and children to Carey, where I found them on my return, but about that time they concluded to return. Neither Shane, nor any one else, told me the amount of his expectations. I paid him for his services to Mr. Polke to the extent of the agreement. Mr. Polke did this with the best intentions, but fact proved it to be an unfortunate plan and I was sorry to hear that Shane, who has influence with the Shawanoes in this country should be dissatisfied with me. Yesterday I conversed with him on various subjects, & I mentioned what I had heard he had said in Ohio respecting me, and let him know that I was confident that I had always acted as his sincere friend. He appeared abashed, as well he might be. Did not deny, nor pretend to justify what he had said, nor even repeat the reasons for his dissatisfaction. But said, "We'll drop it," reached to me his hand in token of friendship, of which he re-iterated assurances, and declared that he had always spoken well of me in this country.

I am glad to have this matter settled, which was one (& I viewed it as a serious one) of the difficulties which had grown out of the circumstance of employing unsuccessful missionaries.

Shane informs me that the southern Indians are daily expected at St. Louis. There is therefore great probability that instead of being allowed to proceed direct to the embraces of my family, I must turn about and make another tour in the deserts. Disappointments & delays, and the supposed state of affairs at Carey & Thomas. [19] render me distressed. A treaty has been held there since I left, which

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circumstance deeply involved the interests of the Mission. I have heard that Mr. Slater, dissatisfied that he could not be allowed to do as he pleased, had gone to New England to see the Board. I had heard of his being on the way back, & that Dr. Bolles [20] was in company intending to examine the state of things at the stations, and to attend the treaty. The burden of affairs have been greatly increased on the brethren at the stations, particularly at Carey, and more especially must the labours of Mrs. McCoy & our daughter, have been increased. Mrs. Simerwell has been absent, with Mr. S-& Mr. Bay has been a journey to Ohio which must have taken several weeks so that much of the time no male missionary was there except Lykins, and for a long time no female missionaries except my wife and Mrs. Lykins.

I had hoped to be able to be at Washington next winter and to have visited the Board, &c. and to have reprinted an enlarged edition of My Remarks on Indian Reform, [21] preparatory to our coming to this country, & to provide for the situation of Mrs. L-and to afford a little rest to my wife, during my almost constant absence, I had hoped to remove them from Carey, to Ohio, or elsewhere for a few weeks, & then allow them time to visit their relations What now will become of our plans, & arrangements, I cannot guess. My mind is filled with anxiety. I am unworthy of favour, yet I am in many respects favoured-to Him with tears, I appeal for help, for myself & family-to Him who has been our help in days that are past, and who is our hope for days to come. O what should I do had I not a God to go to, and to whose care to commit my dear-lonely--companion, and our dear babes, the mission & all connected therewith! Here alone I find comfort. But since the friends of the Indians are so few-their miseries so great, & their destruction so menacing-who would not toil & suffer in support of this work of benevolence! O that God would prepare me for all the duties of this service.

Since I left St. Louis I have not employed much religion. I have had a troublesome company to manage. Have had no associate, I have been very lonely. My mind seems to have assimilated too nearly to the wildness of the wilderness. I cannot generally enjoy myself in prayer. Prayer and other religious services are accom

264 THE KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

panied by too little reverence for him whom I profess to serve. Sometimes however I am blest with a comfortable engagedness.

Monday Oct. 6
We set off very early, Crossed Missouri at St. Charles, travelled hard, and till in the night, made 46 miles and reached Mr. Browns, my former lodgings 12 miles from St. Louis. Here my acquaintances received me with much friendship. It has been forty seven days since I set out from this place. The beast that escaped from me on the [24th of] Aug. had been brought in to St. Louis and is safe. The four Creek Indians whom I left here when I started, are still here.

Tuesday Oct. 7.
After over-hauling our baggage & making some arrangements preparatory to sending my company of Indians home, I rode in to St. Louis, and made a brief written report to Genl. Clarke. This is the 50th day since I left this place.

The southern Indians have not yet arrived but are daily expected. I have therefore no prospect but of being under the necessity of turning about and making another tour.

(COPY of my Report to Genl. Clark)

St. Louis, Mo. Oct. 7, 1828.
"Sir

In obedience to your instructions I wrote you from Harmony mission station. I informed that I had commenced my tour at St. Louis the 19th August. I have this day returned to this place, having been absent 49 days.

On leaving the State of Missouri I proceeded westwardly up the Osage river, generally on the north side. Passing the sources of Osage we bore South west across the upper branches of Neosho until we intersected the main river at a point eighty miles south, and 127 west of the mouth of Kanzas river, and [albout 25 miles southeast of the Santa Fe road. We then bore north west until we reached the Santa Fe road sixty miles from Arkansas river, and 140 due west of this State. These estimates are made according to measurement on the map, and not according to distances travelled, survey of the road, &c. We turned eastward along and near to the Santa Fe road, to a point due South of the upper Kanzas village, then travelled north to said village on the Kanzas river, 125 miles west of this State.

I had been instructed to cross Kansas river and to return on the north side thereof, but the Indians informed me that there was not a canoe or other craft on the river. My time was then so far consumed that I deemed it inadvisable to incur the delay that would be occasioned by crossing on rafts. I therefore proceeded eastwardly near to the southern limits of the Kanzas reservation, and came down to the Shawanoe settlement near the mouth of the Kanzas river, varying in our journey north and south 40 miles. Thence I came on the most direct rout[el to this place.

There is great similarity in the appearance of all parts of the country we explored. It is generally a high rolling country, exhibiting a healthy appear

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ance. Stone, and almost universally limestone sufficiently abundant for use. The soil exceedingly fertile with scarcely the occurrence of an exception, and possessing the mellowness peculiar to limestone lands. We suffered no inconvenience from want of water, but found it happily distributed in the creeks & smaller streams all over the country, though not much running. Streams for mills and other water-works are abundant, but all these would fail in the more dry season of the year. Wood is too scarce, especially beyond the distance of sixty miles west of this State; and ten miles south of Kanzas river, nevertheless I suppose the whole country is supplied with groves, and streaks of timber sufficient to sustain a considerable population, if judiciously located. I persuade myself that the scarcity of timber in this country is not so great as has been sometimes reported. The wood is chiefly along the watercourses. The hills, which sometimes are abrupt though sufficiently level on top, and other uplands formed by gentle ascent generally rise once, twice, or thrice as high as the timber in the low grounds. Travellers usually avoid crossing the watercourses as much as practicable because of the unevenness of the way, the brush, and the rocks, and hence most of the timber is unseen by one passing hastily through the country uninterested in the matter of wood. It would be fortunate for this country, if, in its settlement surveys should be so made that to each farm should be allotted so much timber only as would be necessary, and let the residue be prarie.

The Putawatomies and Ottawas whom I conducted, while they lament the scarcity of wood, and especially the almost total absence of the sugar tree, pronounce it a fine country.

On our tour we came in contact with Osages, Kanzas, Pawnees, and Shawanoes, the kind treatment received from all whom is pleasantly acknowledged by our party.

With the exception of a few warm days at the commencement of our tour, the whole has been pleasant and our Indians, I am happy to say, have returned with fine feelings.

I have the honour to be
With great respect, Sir,
Your Obt. Servt.
Isaac McCoy"

Genl. William Clarke
Present."

Tuesday Oct. 7 1828
Since our return to the settlements I asked Noonday if he thought the country on Osage river, &c. was a suitable place to settle the pupils of our schools, and for the location of the southern Indians, &c, and he replied in direct terms, "yes, it is a good country for such purpose." He cannot bear the idea of leaving Michigan. Having discovered the others pleased with the country he had repeatedly mentioned objections, such as the scarcity of wood, of sugar tree-of bark for bags and twine, and of bulrushes for mats, &c. Gosa tells me all that passes among them, and I had occasionally made remarks which were intended as replys to his objections. Gosa goes so far as to say that Chandonois also has endeavoured to discourage them, and has not only found fault with the country but said that should the Indians settle in it, they would

266 THE KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

soon be driven thence by the influx of white population. Notwithstanding all which Gosa has, of his own accord, frequently told me that he had resolved to come to this country should I come. - He further assures me that Wesauogana, Magaukwuk, and Shawaunukwuk, also, all say the same. I am bound to be thankful that I have so much reason to beleive that, notwithstanding all the disadvantages under which the tour from Michigan has been made, appearances so far promise the result desired.

Wednesday Oct. 8.
Col. Manard one of the Commissioners who treated with the Putawatomies at Carey since I left has brought me a brief communication from Mr. Lykins. I am sorry it is so short, but it was written at the breaking up of the treaty & when all no doubt were much hurried which is the apology for its shortness. Some land has been purchased of the Indians, & some favourable provisions made for the mission. [22] The particulars will be inserted when they are better known. I was exceedingly busy till 12, when not waiting to dine, I rode back to my lodgings in the country, 13 miles. Where I was busy till bed time.

Thursday Oct. 9
I took eight horses, and fixed our five Indians & the little girl whom the Ottawas found here in the summer, and who has ever since resided at Mr. Browns where I provided a place for her, and after a busy morning, set off at 11 o'clock for St. Louis, intending to send the Indians home. Chandonois last Sunday, with Magaukwuk went ahead to spend the time with some acquaintances. The former has received a fall from his horse, and is unable to travel. Both, no doubt were drunk, Magaukwuk has lost several articles. Shawaunukwuk got drunk yesterday in my absence. The Creeks here drink very much also. I am glad that our Indians are likely to go without Chandonois. He is a murderous fellow, and in a frollick on the road might kill some of them. His horse has a severe wound on the head made no doubt with a tomahawk in an attempt of Chandonois to kill him.

On reaching St. Louis I entered upon business of fitting out our party &c. & continued busy till bed time.

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Friday Oct. 10.
I paid our Indians according to agreement at the rate of $10. pr. month from the time of leaving their homes until they can return, In addition to this they have received Clothing to a considerable amount, each of them a new gun-blankets, & sundry small articles for travelling. To Noonday I gave an old horse saddle, & bridle, &c. and to the others horses at half their value so that to each one was given $15-20, or 25, in the value of their horse, besides, saddle, &c. &c. So that each has received, since he entered by service near $200. in cash, clothing, &c. &c.

I was extremely anxious to get started today, lest the Putawatomies should begin to drink. I had prepared every thing by one oclock, when they said they wished to see Genl. Clarke, I went with them. After they said they were ready to go, they loitered so that it was near night before we crossed Mississippi. I rode about 5 miles and slept at Belsha's at which place we arrived in the night.

As I am much worn with riding on horseback, Cap. Kennerly has lent me a horse & gig.

They had considerable talk with Genl. Clarke after I left them. I suppose they had begged something of him. I returned to hurry them off and the Genl. told me he thought I had better give them an additional blanket and perhaps something else. I told him that they had already been amply rewarded. However at his suggestion I gave each of them a first rate blanket, and one good one to the girl.

Saturday Oct. 11
I made about 25 miles. White inhabitants on the road are now scattering. Here I have completed my supply of provisions for them. Gave them additionally $10. to bear their travelling expenses, and, as they were anxious to be going, and deemed it most advisable for them to be on the road, at 11 o'clock on Sunday They proceeded. Here we parted-they and I both exOct. 12 pressing & feeling affection. I trust the Lord will return them in safety to their people. I have go[od] reason to beleive that their journey will be a means of promoting in no small degree, the objects of our labours among them. All except Noonday say they are determined to go to the west, and that they will take with them some of their friends. Two of them told me this morning that by me on my visiting Washington, they wished to make a communication on this subject to the President, in which they would be joined by many of their friends.

I have great reason to be thankful to God that notwithstanding

268 THE KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

all the disappointments and delays, so that none others have yet seen the country we were to explore, yet all the objects of the tour in relation to the Putawatomies & Ottawas have been fully accomplished, and promise a favourable result.

By these I have written home to my dear family & brethren from whom, for a few years past I have been much absent. This is a great privation! I feel much anxiety of mind. O that the Lord would strengthen me for my work, and enable me to endure hardness as a good soldier! No one not in similar circumstances can form an idea of my anxiety. O Lord sustain my lonely companion in life, & preserve our dear babes and older children!

III. STATEMENTS OF EXPENSES OF THE TOUR

Carey, July 1. 1828.
The following articles were furnished by the Mission for the use of Indians on the exploring expedition being second hand and repaired.
3 Coats, 5 vests and 3 pr. pantaloons
5 pair socks and 2 pair suspenders
2 Shot pouch straps 1 hunting shirt & Coat 1 vest and 2 pair Socks
1 pair pantaloons Belt & shot pouch Strap
6 Saddles 3 saddle Bags, 6 Bridles 6 saddle blankets & 6 circingles
1 saddle, saddle bags, bridle saddle Blanket circingle and Buffalo robe
1 Pack saddle circingle & Bridle
5 Bell Collars & 2 Leather hobbles
9 Bags Buffalo Robe Deer & Bear skin
100 lb flour 4 Tin Kettles 1 pan 8 cups 1 canteen
2 spoons & pepper Box
one musquito Bar
2 Rifles & 1 heavy shot gun with pouches & horns
1 lb Tea 2 lb Coffee 1 pr socks & 14 lb sugar
2 blankets

For the above mentioned articles McCoy Received of the U. States $261.81¼ which is accordingly Credited on the mission book for Sep. 1829.
Fayette, Mo. Sep. 8. 1829
Isaac McCoy

Isaac McCoy
to David Walker
1828 July 10
To Ferriage of 7 men & 8 horses mouth Fox river.....50 cts.
Recd payment
David Walker

BARNES: EXPLORING EXPEDITION OF 1828 269

Isaac McCoy Bot of
William Holland
22¾ lb. bacon @ 8 cts. .....$2.81¼
Recd. payment
Farm Creek, near Fort Clark
July 10. 1828
Wm. Holland.

Springfield, Ill., July 12. 1828
Bot. of A. G. Herndon
12 lb. sugar...2.00
20 " flour... .40
...2.40
Recd. payment
A. G. Herndon

Isaac McCoy
To Samuel Wiggins .......... Dr.
For ferriage at St. Louis 8 horses & 7 men ... $3.87
St. Louis, July 16, 1828. Recd. payment for Samuel Wiggins
Benjamin Ground

Isaac McCoy
to John Cormack ... Dr.
For keeping 8 horses one night, &
for provisions for company ... $1.25
Recd. payment
[MS. torn] Edwardsville, Ill. July 16, 1828
John Cormack

Isaac McCoy Dr.
to J. Baum
July 22    Repairing Coat for Gosa, Ottawa ... 2.00
1 Sett Buttons ... 1.00
      $3.00
Recd. pay St. Louis, July 23, 1828
[Original]    J. Baum

St. Louis, City Hotel
The Revd. Isaac McCoy     Dr.
To G. S. Greene
Expenses necessarily incurred for entertainment of self and a party of Indians on an exploring expedition to the west.

270 THE KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

1828
July

16 To supper & lodgings for self .62½
17 " one bottle Madiera Wine 2.00
  " washing of peices .56¼
  " Do. 24 Do. for Indians 1.50
22 Do. 8 Do. for self .50
23 Two bottles Madeira Wine 4.00
  7 days board and lodgings for self 7.00
  6 days entertainment for one interpreter and five Indians at $1. pr. diem for each person as pr. contract 36.00
      $52.18¾
    " one weeks keep of 1 Horse 2.00
      54.18¾

Received Payment
Geo. S. Greene

St. Louis, Aug. 14. 1828.

Magaukwok Coat $6.50
3 brevetts   1.00
Wesauogana Hkf .50
Noonday Hkf .50
Shawaunukwuk vest 2.00
    10.50

Recd. Payment
Saml. Waddell

The United States
To Henry Crossle Dr.
Dr. For the following No. of Horses furnished Cast George H. Kennedy as leader of a party of Indians &c on an exploring party west of the State of Missouri & Territory of Arkansas authorized by the last Session of Congress.

For 1Roan Mare $30.00
" 1 Gray Horse 40.00
" 1 Roan Horse 75.00
" 1 Bay Horse 35.00
    $188.00

St. Louis August 14th 1828
Received of the Revd. I. McCoy One Hundred and eighty eight dollars in full of the above a/c
$188.
Henry Crossle

BARNES: EXPLORING EXPEDITION OF 1828 271

The United States

To Robert Payne ..... Dr.
For the following No. of horses furnished Capt Geo H Kennedy as Leader of a party of Indiana &c on an exploring party west of the State of Missouri & Territory of Arkansas. Authorized by the last Session of congress.

For 1 Large Sorrel Horse $80.00
" 1 Dark Bay Horse 60.00
" 1 Light Sorrel Horse 75.00
" 1 Dark Sorrel 65.00
" Light Bay ditto 95.00
" 1 Dark Gray ditto 83.00
" 1 Black ditto 65.00
    $523.00

St. Louis August 14th 1828.
    Received of the Revd. I. McCoy Five Hundred & Twenty three dollars in full of the above a/c.
    R. Payne
    [Signed duplicate]

Approved
Wm. Clark S. I. Af.

For the service of an expedition to the West Isaac McCoy Bought of me one Horse for which I have this day received sixty Dollars.
        St. Louis County, Missouri,     August 15, 1828 $60.00    (Duplicate)    Lewellyn Brown

Revd. Isaac McCoy
Bot. of Joseph Charless Senr.

¼ lb. Best Lima Bark @ 1 $ .25
2 oz. Blister Plaister 18¼ .37½
3 Nutmegs   .12 ½
4 oz. Ess. Peppermint & Phial   .31¼
2 oz. Calomel & vial   .37
1 oz. Jallap & vial   [MS.torn]
½ lb. Epsom Salt   (MS.torn]
1 Small bottle Cas[MS. torn]   [MS. torn]
2 drs. Opium   [MS. torn]
    $2.23

        Recd. Payment
St. Louis, Aug. 19. 1828.
    Jos. Charless Senr.

Isaac McCoy
    To Samuel Worthington    Dr.
Dr. For accommodations for himself and party of eight, with 12 horses, night & morning .... $3.62½
        Recd. Payment
        St. Louis County, Missouri
        Aug. 22, 1828
        Saml. L. Worthington

272 THE KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

The Reverend Isaac McCoy         Dr. 1828 July 24
on an exploring expidition to the west, To John Brown

To boarding self & 5 indians
four weeks at 175c per week each
42.00
To Interpreters Board 3 weeks @ 175c 5.25
To 7 horses kept 4 weeks @ 1$ per week 28.00
To 1 horse one week do 1.00
To 9 horses kept 3 weeks and 5 days @ 1$ pr 33.75
To keeping sorrell mare one week @ 1.00 1.00
To washing 2 doz & 5 pieces per self @ 50c 1.25
To whng-6 ½ dozen per Indians @ 62½ 4.06¼
To washing 10 blankets per do @ 10c 1.00
To heming 2 handkercheifs per do 12½
To paid for shoeing 2 horses 2.62 ½
To 25 lb flour @ 3c .75
To 30 lb Buiscuits @ 5c 1.50
August 25 To 1 Bacon ham 12 lb @ 8 cents .96
To 1 Midling bacon 11 lb @ 6¼c 68¾
To 3 horses one night @ 25c .75
To 2 men 6 meals @ 12½c .75
To ¾ lb Tea@ 1.00
" 5 quts Salt @ 25c-1 Rope @ 25c .50
  126.96

Received payment in full of the above account from the
Revd Isaac McCoy
[Original]        John Brown

The United States
    To Thornton Grimsley     Dr.
For the following number of Saddles, Bridles, pack Saddles Halters & Hobbles furnished Capt George H Kennedy as leader of a party of Indians &c on an Exploring party west of the State of Missouri and Territory of Arkansas. Authorized by the last Session of Congress., &c

1828 Augt 26th

For 6 Common Saddles @$6.60 $39.00
1 ditto ditto 10.00
6 Bridles 3.00
12 Pack Saddles 36.00
1 Bridle 2.50
14 Halters 14.00
12 Hobbles 6.00
  $110.50

Received St. Louis Augt 26th 1828 of the Revd. I. McCoy One Hundred & ten dollars and fifty cents in full of the above acct.

        (Signed duplicates)             Thornton Grimsley

BARNES: EXPLORING EXPEDITION OF 1825 273

Isaac McCoy
    To Thomas Gibson        Dr. For Dinners, horsefeed and 10 lb. bacon ... $2.50
Received Payment
Gasconade, Aug. 27. 1828
Thom. Gibson

Isaac McCoy
    To James Wilson
For Dinners & horsefeed for party &
11 lb. pork $2.50
        Received Payment
        Grand Auglaize, Aug. 28. 1828
        James Wilson

Isaac McCoy
    To Edmund J. Carter        Dr. For provisions for party, and piloting five miles ... $1.50
        Received Payment
        Gravois, Cooper County M.
        Aug. 30. 1828
        Edmund J. Carter
1828 Sep. 4th
Rev. Mr. McCoy and party Dr. to Harmony Mission

To 1 bushel Corn @ 1.00 pr. bush $1.00
Blacksmith's bill .25
  1.25

        Recd. payment for said Mission
         D. H. Austin

         St. Louis September 10th 1828
The United States
To William King        Dr. For Hunting and finding one sorrel mare on the Merrimack River lost by the Revd. I. McCoy while on an exploring expedition west of the State of Missouri & Territory of Arkansas and bringing her to St. Louis ... $15.00

St. Louis
1828 Recd. of the Revd. I. McCoy
Fifteen dollars in full of the above acct.
(Signed Duplicate)

         his
      William X King
         mark
Witness
      Henry Crossle

274 THE KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

Isaac McCoy
   To William Everett      Dr.
For ferriage of himself and man & two horses Sep. 25
and Do. 7 men & two horses on Sep. 26         $2.50
Received payment Clay Co. Missouri
Sep. 25, 1828
Wm. Everett

The United States Indian Dept.
   To Leonard Searcy      Dr.

For 2 Gentlemen ten meals $2.50
" 2 horse thirty six hours 1.50
" 8 horses for one night 1.00
" 7 suppers and breakfast 3.25
    8.25

Recd. Libert Sept. 27th 1828 of the Revd. Isaac McCoy the sum of eight dollars and twenty five cents in full of the above acct.
L. Searcy
Isaac McCoy
   To Joseph Erwin      Dr.
For ferriage across Missouri river of himself & eight men and 12 horses . . . $2.50
Received payment.
Jack's ferry, Ray County, Mo.
Sep. 29, 1828
Joseph Erwin
Isaac McCoy
To Wm. B. Martin Dr.
1828 Sep. 29
To accomodations for self and eight men & 12 horses 2 nights & one day           $10.00
Received, Richmond County, Mo.
Payment in full
Wm. B. Marti
Isaac McCoy
To A.A. Evans Dr.
For ferriage across Tabbo creek for self & eight men and twelve horses.
Recd. Payment
La Fayette County, Mo.
Sept. 29, 1828
Abner A. Evans

BARNES: EXPLORING EXPEDITION OF 1825 275

Isaac McCoy
   To Littleberry Estes      Dr.
For suppers & breakfasts, &c. For himself & eight me, and the keeping one night of twelve horses ...$7.50

Received payment
September 30, 1828
Little B. Estes
Isaac McCoy
   To Noel Mograin      Dr.

For services as interpreter to Osage and Kazas, and for the use of horse from September 3d to Sep. 30th inclusive, being twenty-eight days at $1.50 per day ...$42.00

Received payment in full
Shawanoe Village
September 30, 1828
      his
Noel X Mograin
      mark
Isaac McCoy
   To Thornton & Thrash      Dr.
For ferriage of himself and eight men and twelve horses .. . $3.00

Received three dollars in payment
Chariton County, Mo.
Oct. 1, 1828
Thornton & Thrush
Mr. Isaac McCoy

   To William Wright       Dr.
1828 Oct. 2

To supper .25
" Horse .37½
" Lodgings .12½
    .75 cents

Received payment
Fayette, Oct. 2, 1828
Wm Wright

276 THE KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

Isaac McCoy
To Jonah H. Shepherd

For 4 bush. of corn @ 371 x $1.50 $1.50
4 Dozen bundles fodder 1.00
Supper for eight 2.00
Breakfast for nine 2.25
  $6.75

Received six Dollars 75 Cents
        Howard Co. Mo. Oct. 2. 1828         Jonah H. Shepherd
Isaac McCoy
    To Levy McMurtry

9 suppers @ 25 $2.25
9 breakfasts 2.25
11 horses all night 2.75
  $7.25

Received seven Dollars and twenty five Cents in Payment.
        Callaway County, Mo. Oct. 4. 1828
      Oct. 4th. 5th. 1828
      Levy McMurtry
Mr. Isaac McCoy
To Roger Taylor

9 suppers @25 $2.25
9 breakfasts " 2.25
1 lodging   .12½
12 horses per night 25 each 3.00
6 dinners .25 1.50
10 Horses pr. day 12½ each 1.25
10 horses per night 25 " 2.50
7 breakfasts 25 each 1.75
1 lodging .12½ 12 ½

Recd. [MS. torn] 1828 of Mr. Isaac McCoy fourteen Dollars & seventy [MS. torn] cents, Montgomery County, State of Missouri Roger Taylor

BARNES: EXPLORING EXPEDITION OF 1828 277

Isaac McCoy
To George Belsha
For supper & breakfast for himself & six Indians & for one lodging and the keeping one night of nine horses ... $4.87½
Received four Dollars 87½ cts. in full
St. Clair County Il.
Oct. 11. 1828

G. Belsha
Isaac McCoy
to Gaius Paddock       Dr.

For two meals for six Indians @ 25 $3.00
The keeping one night of eight horses @ 25 2.00
63 lb. pork @ 2½ cts 1.57 ½
3 meals, 2 lodgings & keeping horse two nights   1.50
    $8.07½

Received eight Dollars 7½ cts. in payment
Madison County Il.
Oct. 13. 1828
&nGaius Paddock

Notes

1. For a sketch of McCoy's work with the Indians of Indiana and Michigan, from which developed his interest in Indian reform, see "Isaac McCoy and the Treaty of 1821," The Kansas Historical Quarterly, May, 1936.
2. Isaac McCoy collection of manuscripts, Kansas State Historical Society.
3. Ibid. Autograph draft signed.
4. Ibid.
5. Des Plaines river.
6. Schoolcraft, Henry R., Travels in the Central Portion of the Mississippi Valley (New York, 1826), pp 330, 331. See, also, "Mount Joliet: Its Place in Illinois History and Its Location," by Robert Knight and Lucius Zeuch in Journal of the Illinois Historical Society, April, 1930.
7. George Hancock Kennedy.
8. Robert Simerwell, Baptist missionary. See The Kansas Historical Quarterly, February, 1932, p. 91, footnote 6.
9. Carey mission, on St. Joseph's ricer, Michigan. For an account of the founding of this mission see ibid., May, 1936.
10. Johnston Lykens, Baptist missionay.-Ibid., February, 1932, p. 90, footnote 3.
11. Thomas Hart Benton (1 182-1858), American statesman, U. S. senator from Missouri 1820-1850.
12. Dr. George P. Todsen was employed as physician and surgeon to accompany the exploring party.
13. Pawnee.
14. A mission in Bates county, Missouri, established in 1821 by the United Foreign Missionary Society.
15. Marais des Cygnes.
16. McCoy probably referred to the first point at which the Santa Fe trail touched the Arkansas river, in present Barton county. The first crossing was in present Ford county, about 280 miles west of the western line of Missouri.
17. Wakarusa.
18. Spencer H. Cone, member of the American Baptist Board of Foreign Missions.
19. Baptist mission for the Ottawa Indians on Grand river, 40 miles east of Lake Michigan, established by Isaac McCoy in 1826.
20. Lucius Bones, corresponding secretary, American. Baptist Board of Foreign Missions.
21. The first edition of this pamphlet was printed by Lincoln S Edwards, Boston, December, 1827 ; a second edition, with appendix, was printed by Gray & Bruce, 24 Cherry street New York, 1829. The expense of printing he latter was borne by McCoy, the Baptist Board of Foreign Missions having declined to pay costs because of disapproval of certain statements in the appendix. The manuscript of the work is owned by the Kansas State Historical Society.
22. Article 6 of the treaty which was concluded September 20, 1828, and ratified January 7, 1829, was as follows: Circumstances rendering it probable that the missionary establishment now located upon the St. Joseph, may be compelled to remove west of the Mississippi. it is agreed that when they remove the value of their buildings and other improvements shall be estimated, and the amount paid by the United States. But, as the location is upon the Indian reservation, the commissioners are unwilling to assume the responsibility of making this provision absolute, and therefore its rejection is not to affect any other part of the treaty."-Treaties Between the United States of America and the Several Indian Tribes from 1778 to 1857, compiled by the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, Washington, 1887.