Jump to Navigation

Journal of Isaac McCoy for the Exploring Expedition of 1830

edited by Lela Barnes

November 1936 (vol. 5, no. 4, pages 339 to 377
Transcribed by lhn; additional HTML by Susan Stafford;
digitized with permission of the Kansas State Historical Society.

I. INTRODUCTION

FOR several months previous to his tour of 1828 into what is now Kansas, Isaac McCoy had been preparing to leave the Baptist missionary station at Carey, Michigan, [1] which he had founded in 1822, and remove to a western field. McCoy had worked indefatigably for the betterment of conditions for the Indian, and his insistence upon the removal of the tribes from the influences of the whites had been a factor in the development of the Indian removal policy of the government. By 1828 this national policy was taking form and McCoy looked to the West as a field for greater service. He had not, however, been able to interest the Baptist mission board in establishing stations in the western territory, the attention of that body being given chiefly to missions in foreign lands. "We did not believe," wrote McCoy, "that they [the board] would grant us permission at that time, to go west, and we therefore did not ask it; for it would have been more painful to go contrary to direct orders, than to go without orders." [2] He resolved that no work should be undertaken at the cost of the board, but that he would follow the course that lay clear before him-the dedication of his remaining years to the assistance of the tribes in the western territory.

1829 found the McCoy family established at Fayette, Mo. From that point McCoy made a short tour into the country beyond the Missouri in the early autumn for the purpose of securing additional information about the lands. He spent the months from November, 1829, until June, 1830, in Washington, Boston, and other Eastern cities, working for the bill which would legalize the removal of the Indians to the country west of the Mississippi. The bill was approved May 28, 1830.

The apportionment of territory to the tribes was the next step in the removal program and McCoy was commissioned to survey lands which had been assigned by treaty to the Delawares. His appointment and instructions were received in a letter from Thomas L. McKenney, superintendent of Indian affairs:

(339)

340 THE KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

War Department
Office Indian Affairs, June 3, 1830.

Dear Sir: The conditional ratification of a supplementary treaty with the Delaware Indians, by the United States' Senate, requires that certain surveys shall be made. The conditions are stated in the accompanying copy of a resolution of the Senate, and the lines to be run are defined in the first paragraph of the treaty aforesaid, [3] and illustrated by a sketch which accompanies this No. 1.

The Secretary of War, by the authority of the President of the United States, refers the execution of this trust to you. No detailed instructions are necessary, since these are ample in the treaty and the resolution of the Senate which accompanies it. You will be governed by these; and in every particular. To aid you with a better view of the country, contiguous to that which is to be surveyed and marked by you, I enclose a copy (No. 2) of Mr. Langham's survey of the Kansas reservation. [4]

I am directed by the Secretary of War to say, that your compensation will be at the rate of five dollars a day, for the time that you may be actually engaged in the execution of this trust; that you will be aided by an assistant surveyor, to be chosen by yourself, whose compensation will be at the rate of three dollars a day, whilst actually engaged; and by a corporal's guard, which will be detailed to report to you from Cantonment Leavenworth. This guard will perform the duties of axemen, & c., and marking of the lines, and in aiding in the transportation of your supplies, & c., from place to place.

You will obtain of the Delawares a designation of their agent, for which the resolution of the Senate provides, whose support will be allowed him, or a daily compensation equivalent to it.

You will be careful, in all things, to conform to the provisions of the resolution of the Senate, in obtaining the certificate of the agent who may be appointed by the Delawares, and in transmitting the map of the surveys, & c., to the President of the United States, for his approval and signature, &c. You will be particular in making up your accounts, and these will embrace your own pay, at the rate mentioned, and your assistant, and the number of days the guard may be with you; as to each man, an extra allowance over the pay in the army will be made, at the rate of fifteen cents a day. The voucher will be your. own certificate that the whole is correct as stated.

You will engage in fulfilling this trust with as little delay as possible.

I have, &c., &c.,
Thomas L. McKenney [5]

BARNES: EXPLORING EXPEDITION OF 1830 341

That part of McCoy's journal here published covers his tour to establish the Delaware boundaries. The first survey was that of the western line beginning three and one-half miles west of the center of present Topeka where the eastern boundary line of the reservation of the Kansas Indians crossed the Kansas river; thence north to the northeast corner of the northwest quarter of Section 3, Township 6, Range 15 in present Jackson county. A random line was then run southeast to the Missouri river at Cantonment Leavenworth and the military reservation boundaries established. The party returned to the northwest corner of the Delaware reservation and proceeded to establish the boundaries of the outlet, a strip ten miles wide extending 150 miles westward from the western boundary line.

Isaac McCoy's journal and other manuscripts cited are in the possession of the Kansas State Historical Society.

II. ENTRIES FROM THE JOURNAL

Memorandum-I actually commenced making preparations for surveying expedition July 19- Dr. McCoy [6] started to Fort Leavenworth, [7] and Delaware agency July 26.- He returned August, 7th. On his return I ascertained that the decision of the commanding officer at the Fort was such that I must purchase and equip at least five more horses.

1830, Monday, at 1/2 past 11, o'clock Aug. 16
I started on my surveying expedition attended by my son Rice as asst. Surveyor, son Calvin as baggage master Two white-men as chain-carriers, and black man as cook, &c. and a man to help us with the pack horses as far as Can. Leavenworth. We have 14 horses, We are packed with flour, bacon, and all our out-fit.

My wife and child accompanied me six miles, where I took my leave of them.

We rode 13 miles, was able to get corn for our horses but - no

342 THE KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

accomodations for ourselves, therefore slept without a house, and cooked our own suppers.

Tuesday Aug 17
Crossed Missouri river near Chariton Villages [8] - rested at Smiths, and put up for the night at Mrs. McCafferty's --where I make these Notes.

Wenesday Aug. 18
Breakfasted & fed at Davis's and stopped for the night at Estes's

Thursday Aug. 19
Nooned at Jennings, & nighted at C. Ewing['s].

Friday-20
Nooned at Rennick's, & nighted at Russel's

Saturday 21
Nooned at Flournoys, Independence. Here I saw M. G. Clark the Sub. agent for the Kanzas, took a letter from him to aid me in assuring the Kanzas that I am not about to disturb them in their lands, nor to intercept any promise which the U. S. had made to them; &c. I purchased a few additional articles of out-fit here, as I had done at Lexington. Received a letter from Genl. Clark, [9] of St. Louis, and a Flag which I had requested him to send me for my use on the expedition.

In the evening reached the Shawanoe & Delaware agency, at the house of Maj. J. Campbell the Sub. Agt. by whom we were kindly received. [10] Our tents were pitched for the company, while I accepted an invitation to take quarters with Maj. Campbell.
Cobern, the Shawanoe express sent to the Delawares to bring on their Commissioner to see their lands marked off, has not yet returned- Is expected soon. [11]

>Sunday Aug. 22
Our Sister Wiskehelaehqua, alias Mrs. Shane, I am happy to hear conducts like a Christian. She expresses a great desire that a mission should be established, here among the Shawanoes, at which she could attend and enjoy religious privileges. She expresses great solicitude for the welfare, especially the Spiritual welfare of her people.

Monday August 23
Major John Campbell, the Sub., but now, acting agent for the Shawanoes & Delawares, &c., has requested me, since my arrival, to endeavour to establish a School among the

BARNES: EXPLORING EXPEDITION OF 1830 343

Shawanoes. Shane the Interpreter, who is a half-Indian, united in the request. The Methodists have been talking of forming an establishment among them, but their project seems not likely to succeed. They have done nothing yet.

Today more than twenty Shawanoes assembled in obedience to a call of Major Campbell, to whom I made a pretty lengthy address on the subject of a mission being established among them. My remarks were seconded by remarks from Maj. Campbell, and some from Shane. The celebrated Shawanoe prophet, who was so often heard of in the last war, and was brother to Tecumseh, replied briefly to me, approbating my doctrine. [12]

An answer in form from the tribe is deferred, until I return from my tour in the wilderness. After the council was dissolved, I had an interview with Fish, alone, He is the Chief of a band of them, He assured me that he and his party were in favour of having a mission established among them. They had been desiring it for some time. They would not have come to this place had they not hoped that this would be done for them. He said he had often expressed his opinion to Shane, He was of the same opinion still. He thought that if a School, &c. was once begun those who are now indifferent to the subject would be induced to follow the example of others who are now ready to adopt those measures, and when they would see others sending their children to school, &c. they would be induced to do the same, &c. &c.

I assured him that at his request a mission should be given them, and that I would enter immediately upon the work of bringing it about. Another man of influence said to me alone that he greatly desired a school that he might send his children, and that his brother might be allowed to send his. Another man, one of Fish's party was pointed out to me, who said that if a school could not be established here he would have to send his daughters into the settlements of the whites, which would occasion an expense which he could not well bear.

Cobern the express sent to the Delawares returned today, and with him the agent of their choice. He is an old man named Johnny Quick is second Chief in the tribe. The interpreter Co [nn] or is bearing the message of the Delaware council- he has not yet arrived.

344 THE KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

Tuesday Aug. 24<
I made a formal application thro. Mr. Campbell, for permission from government to establish a mission here. I also communicated this and the circumstance of the case generally to the Board thro. Mr. Cone. [13] These letters are on file, and may be considered as belonging to the mission Journals.

In the afternoon of this day, J. Connor the Delaware interpreter arrived with the written communications of the Chiefs. The substance of which was that they had been in council on the subject of our surveying. Had chosen and sent as their agt. to see the land marked off-John Quick an aged and respectable Chief- They wished to remove on their lands in the course of two months. While we would be surveying their land, they requested that Maj. Campbell their Agent should be purchasing horses, and wagons, &c. to transport them to their new country before cold weather.

They required that the nature of the whole subject be again explained to their Commissioner, and in event of his being satisfied, he was to proceed.This was done to his satisfaction, and he cheerfully agreed to proceed. But stated that neither the nation nor he wished for him to go farther than to see the bounds of their tract generally marked that they cared not to see their out-let marked. They would be content without it. It would save the agent, who is old, from much fatigue, and would allow him to return in time to aid in removal to their new country.

Wednesday Aug. 25.
It was not until the evening of this day that Maj. Campbell could procure a horse for John Quick to ride.

Thursday Aug. 26
We have been detained here until this time waiting for the Delaware Commissioner to prepare. This done we proceeded. As we passed the Shawanoe village we found 35 Kanzas there, assembled to have a talk with the Shawanoes. They said that the Shawanoes had been living two years in the country, that a general talk between them had been expected, and they had now called for that purpose. The Shawanoes invited me to attend their council, as one, as they said, who took a deep interest in Indian affairs, with which I had made myself acquainted, &c. This was a high compliment, of which I cheerfully accepted. I proceeded to the river five miles, directed the company how to encamp, and returned with my son Rice. By this time it was late in the day & their interpreter having not yet arrived, we returned to camp with the understanding that we should meet them on the following day. It was dusk when we reached camp and I was really fatigued &

BARNES: EXPLORING EXPEDITION OF 1830 345

hungry. Maj. Campbell, & Mr. Shane and his son are with us accompanying us to the Garrison.

We expected to have to raise a boat that was sunk in the Kanza river here, to enable us to cross, and to this end the Shawanoes to a considerable number, had been invited to help. On arriving here the Indians pronounced the boat unfit for use.

I had bought of an Indian a small beef for their use when helping us, and for our company. We now gave half of it to the Kanzas.Soon after I had passed them with our packs today, old Plume, [14] sent two persons in great haste after us. We saw them coming running, and halted to hear what newswhen we were informed that Plume had sent to get some of -our Bacon. Having no disposition to unpack there, and as little disposition to give away our bacon, we went on.

Friday Aug. 27
I left Rice to take .on the company, and took Calvin and Mr. Shane, and returned to the Shawanoe village. It was indispensable for me to see the Kanzas to explain to them the nature of our expedition before we commenced surveying. It is favourable that I can see them here and will save us several days hereafter.

I addressed 35 Kanzas, seated on one side of the Council-house and some Shawanoes on the other. A fire in the centre, near which I placed a few twists of tobacco for them all to smoke. I spread out the map before the Kanzas and explained to them what we were about to do, the wishes of the government in relation to settling the Indians in this country, and enjoined on them to be at peace among themselves.

The Kanzas said they had not yet ceded away that country. Why should the U. S. give it to the Delawares without first consulting them.
I told them that they had ceded it five years ago-that I was not at the treaty, but so said the paper, to which they had signed their names. [15] They knowing this to be true said no more, especially as

346 THE KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

I had told old Plume that he understood it all, for he had last year showed me where their line crossed the Kanza river.

Having gone thro. with my talk with the Kanzas, I was anxious to follow after our company. But the Kanzas asking me to stay and hear what should pass between them and the Shawanoes, I consented to stay.

The speeches of each are on separate sheets from this and may be considered as a part of this Journal. [16]

The packhorses had with difficulty, and some miring in the river, and some wetting of packs, got over. The river is sandy and miry with quicksands. It is muddy so that the bottom cannot be perceived. Neither of us knew the ford- Shane got thro by wading very deep. Calvin and I took a little to one side of his place, found it more shallow. Calvin went before to try the bottom, &c. His horse mired about the middle of the river, so that he had to dismount, and carry out his saddle bags. His horse relieved of so much of his burthen arose and was led out.

I seeing this, dismounted in the river, tied up my bridle and let my horse follow, With much difficulty he got across. I having my saddle-bags, which were very heavy, and my gun to carry waded slowly after him. Calvin having got his horse and mine safely ashore returned and met me in the river and relieved me of my load.

We stopped at a solitary wigwam at which lived an Old Delaware alone, without any other human being near him on either side of the river. It was now in the afternoon and we began to get pretty hungry. I had found a few ears of green corn in a deserted Indian field. While we dried our clothes wetted in crossing the river, we roasted the corn. We over-took our company in camp at dark. I was very much fatigued.

Saturday Aug. 28 Quick's horse could not be found. We proceeded a few miles and encamped. Son Rice, Shane & I went to Cantonment Leavenworth, three miles from our camp. We saw the Commanding officer, Maj. Davenport, [17] and Maj. Dougherty Agent for the Pawnees, [18] on our business-the history of this interview will be given a few days hence. We came back to our camp, and my two sons again went to the garrison with our papers for the inspection of those officers.

BARNES: EXPLORING EXPEDITION OF 1830 347

Sunday Aug. 29
We remain in camp. Receive communications from home. Also a letter from Rev. S. H. Cone, in which among other things he very kindly states that as it is probable that we are in want of funds for the support of my family, I was at liberty to draw on him for one-two-or three hundred Dollars. He does not say how, or when he would expect to be remunerated. This is an act of kindness [and] generosity worth recording, in our Journal, and on our hearts, and one that will be rewarded by Heaven. I am thankful to the Lord for such a friend-and thankful that I am not under the necessity of accepting the offer. True, we had not funds to fit out Mr. Lykins, [19] and to bear his expenses, nor to leave for the use of my family, but the Lord has given us friends, who have, and will let us have what we need on credit in Fayette, until I realize the earnings of my present labours. Major Dougherty spent most of the day at our camp.

Monday Aug 30
Son Rice & myself again visited the garrison, In order to make arrangements for proceeding. We hope to get off on Wednesday next, which will be as soon as we can arrange our business with the commanding officer at the garrison.

When I undertook this work, the Secretary of War was advised that there would probably be some difficulty with the neighbouring Indians, and ordered a Corporal's guard, (10 men) and at my request he then left the matter to the discretion of the commanding officer at Cantonment Leavenworth. I had sent my son to the garrison to arrange with the commander, who then was Maj. Riley [20] all appeared fair.

A Maj. Davenport had succeeded to the command a day or two before our arrival, and he perceived difficulties in everything.

He first appeard unwilling to furnish any men to help me, said that my surveying company might be completed by my hiring men. That he could not send an escort, because if one were necessary, it would require more men than he had to spare-at least two companies. I stated to him the nature of the case, that a guard had from the first been deemed indispensable, and therefore the Secretary of War had ordered it. I returned to my camp, & wrote him an official notice that I was now engaged in the work and de-

348 THE KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

sired him to furnish the men needed to complete my surveying company, and also the necessary escort. When he discovered that I was disposed to proceed in a way that would tell, he appeared more obliging. He said he expected some orders on the subject from Genl. Atkinson, [21] near St. Louis, on Sunday. I also sent him on Saturday evening, my Commission & instructions, and the ratification of the treaty by the Senate &c. for his inspection.
[Marginal note.] This took place on Saturday, Aug. 28.

On Sunday, he forwarded me a letter stating that the number of men that I asked for, to aid me for the first three weeks, which was only six, should be in readiness to start at any time, but that he could not furnish an escort, because, if the disposition of the Indians rendered a guard necessary at all, it would require more men than he could spare.

It seems that he had received an order from Genl. Atkinson stating that as there was no appearance of hostility on the frontiers, no escort was necessary. And if needed at all, not more than 20 men could be spared &c. (this was stated to me by Maj. Dougherty).

All this was mere trifling. Atkinson, and every one else in this country knew that not a year for several years had passed, in which those Pawnees did not kill, and rob, and otherwise abuse, more or fewer of the citizens of the U. States who happened to fall into their hands.

The Secretary of War, aware to some extent of the difficulties to be apprehended from the Indians within the vicinity of our surveying, had issued an order to Genl. Clark, Superintendent of Indian affrs. at St. Louis that he should require the Indian Agents for those tribes with whom I should likely come in contact, to notify the Indians of their several charges that I acted under the authority & protection of the U. States, and to require them to treat me with friendship &c. accordingly. [22] Genl. Clark had not given this notice to the agents. He had written to me that he had notified the Subagt. -of the Kanzas, but he, the Sub-agent, M. G. Clark, told us the other day at Independence that he had not been notified. Neither had Maj. Campbell, S. Agt. for the Shawanoes. Both those men acted promptly upon my statements to them.

BARNES: EXPLORING EXPEDITION OF 1830 349

I brought on the order to Clark from the Sec. War, and knowing that there were many crooked sticks about St. Louis, I had the precaution to take a copy. This I have used to effect with the agents above named. But Dougherty was absent at the time my son was at the Garrison. He was then in St. Louis, was many days in Clark's company, both at St. Louis, then at Du Chien, at a treaty, then again at St. Louis. He asked Clark about it, but Clark gave him no information, and intimated that he did not believe that the treaty had been ratified. After Dougherty's return to the garrison, and his hearing that we were certainly going to work, and knowing that the Pawnees were the only Indians from whom we need fear any hostility, wrote to Clark, from whom he has not yet heard. Clark's neglect of duty, and Atkinson's foolish & wicked orders, and Davenport's childishness are partly unaccountable.

Dougherty could omit doing any thing for us, because he had received no orders, but he kindly consented to act. To justify him in doing so, I made a written request for him to notify and endeavour to conciliate the Pawnees. I also inquired if there were any circumstances which had recently occurred which evinced that they were now under the influence of better feelings than formerly, and what those circumstances were if they did exist. I forwarded him a copy of the Sec. War's order to Clark, and also other documents to show to him the full character of the expedition.

He agreed to send immidiately to the Pawnee towns, and bring in some of them to council on the subject. But he had not horses to send, and I was obliged to let him have two of our horses. These I sent up to him today-and his express will start today or tomorrow.

Tuesday August 21
I again went, in company of Rice, and conversed with Major Davenport, respecting an escort when we shall commence running our long line. But he appeared to be no more accommodating than before, and wished, as he had stated in his letter, to let the matter rest. until we could hear from the Pawnees.

Maj. Dougherty politely replied to my communication and offers to afford all the aid in his power. In reply to my enquiries, "If any recent circumstances evinced that the Pawnees are now under the influence of better feelings than formerly," &c. He stated that he knew of no such favourable circumstances.

Davenport advised me to write to Genl. Atkinson, and state the number of men that I should probably need, &c. This I declined to do.

350 THE KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

The neglect of Davenport I attribute to his naturally, disobliging disposition, as he wished to be understood as treating me with politeness. The unreasonable, and foolish opinion expressed by Atkinson, I attribute to the influence of Clark. The neglect of duty on the part of Clark, I attribute in part to his dislike of Dougherty, but chiefly because he dislikes Vashon, [23] and was not pleased that Vashon had made a treaty with the Delawares, and more especially because that treaty does not stipulate for the payment of certain claims of traders against the Delawares. [24]

This is the last treaty to be made with the Delawares respecting land, and those who had hovered about them like crows about a carcase, knew that this was their last draw. After the treaty with Vashon, the Delawares were prevailed on to ask that certain claims to the amount of some thousands of Dollars, should be paid by the U. States. Vashon told them that the U. States had paid their debts at the treaty of St. Marys in 1818 and that ought to suffice. The Indians gave him to understand that they were quite satisfied to let matters rest so, and that they had made the request at the instance of others.

The nature of those claims are generally as follows. Traders credit the Indians, charging three or four prices for their goods, expecting that all will not be collected, and charging so high as to make themselves safe if but a small amount should be collected. They always enter the trade upon their own risk, and have no more right to insurance from the U. States than any other merchants and traders. When a treaty occurs, they come in with these claims. A trifling present or profession of friendship, &c. will induce an Indian to say the claim is just, and must be paid, if he sells his land. If the amount of claims of the claimer, is not equal to what he hopes the U. States will agree to pay, he creates claims by the same means that he has proven his old ones.

Vashon informed me of Clark's displeasure that the treaty had been made, and of the circumstance of those claims.

Such is the character of the people with whom I have to do this business, and such the state of things in relation to the Indians.

The express-two men, will start this day for the Pawnees. Some Kanzas are at the garrison, by these Dougherty sends for the Kanza chiefs to assemble. He is going with us that far, and will talk to

BARNES: EXPLORING EXPEDITION OF 1830 351

them on the subject of our surveying. This he deems necessary, notwithstanding the interview I had with some of them the other day.

A band of Kanzas have lately stolen nine horses from the Pawnees, a little previously, the Osages and Pawnees had a fight in which some ten or twelve Pawnees and two or three Osages were slain. Thes[e] circumstances have induced Dougherty to suggest to me the propriety of taking a guard on our first and present tour. This is to extend only sixty miles west of Missouri State, and will last about three weeks. We shall then be led back to this place by our work, and shall re-fit for our more remote and important expidition.

We leave some of our supplies at Canto. Leavenworth and are preparing to proceed on our Journey, tomorrow, which is as early as we have been able to adjust our business with our trifling major.

Maj. Campbell, Shane, & his son, left us yesterday for their place.

Wednesday September 1 At a half past 9 o'clock
we left camp, proceeded to Cantonment Leavenworth, where we took into our company a Corporal & eight men with 21 days' provision. We have deposited the balance of our supplies at the garrison. The garrison furnished food for the men from there but we had to furnish horses and bags, &c for transportation. We there borrowed a spade for mound-making, & a tent for the soldiers.

I and Calvin proceeded with the company, at 12- made, about 15 miles and encamped at the Stranger. [25] Rice, Major Dougherty, & Lieut. Cook overtook us at dark, the latter merely to spend the night.

Thursday Sep. 2
Major Dougherty & I proceeded early and left my sons to bring on the company. We reached Boon's, [26] at the Kanza agency at 1 o'clock, soon after, about 20 or 30 Kanza chiefs & others assembled, to whom Dougherty explained the objects of our coming into their country &c. and conversed with them on the subject of their differences with the Pawnees.

A band of [Kansas] have lately stolen 9 horses from the Pawnees Since that two other parties have gone, one a party of five, which has been out five days, the other a party of four, which have been gone four days. One party have gone to the Republican

352 THE KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

Pawnees, and the other to the Grand Pawnees on the great Platte -both to steal horses. This increases the danger to us, of falling in with hostile Pawnees following in after the Kanza thieves, and to avenge their thefts. We shall be in danger of having our horses stolen at least, even while we are near to the Kanza villages. The Company overtook us at night, & we encamped near Boon's.

Friday Sep. 3
Had further Had further talks with the Kanzas, Maj. Dougherty Sep. 3 warned them not to follow our party to beg for provisions, &c. &c. I have hired our interpreter who speaks Kanza. He has agreed to overtake us tomorrow & to accompany us a few days only. An interpreter is necessary, because, otherwise we could not distinguish a friend from a foe as he would approach us. The Kanzas have not yet decided whether they will deliver up the horses they have lately stolen.

[Marginal note.] Connor returned, had not found the Del. Chiefs horse-but brought another.

About 11 o'clock Maj. Dougherty started home- We sent a man with him a days journey. The company started and I and Calvin soon followed, having obtained some Smith work on our guns and a horse. Stopped at Plume's, 3 miles from our camp, and borrowed an U. States' flag. Made about eight miles and encamped on Grasshopper creek. [27] Col. Boon accompanies us.

Saturday Sep 4
Several Kanzas passed us both ways yesterday and two encamped with us. We started before 8 oclock, saw a considerable number of Kanzas going each end of the road. We encamped on Soldier creek. [28] More than twenty Kanzas came to our camp, many of them seemed anxious to beg some of our provisions or clothing. But we assured them that we had not come to trade- We had come to perform a piece of work for the benefit of their Delaware neighbors, and had brought no more of food or raiment than we needed for our own use. I gave them some tobacco, at dusk they all left us. We are now within three miles of the line on which we shall com-

BARNES: EXPLORING EXPEDITION of 1830 353

mence our work, and not more than four or five miles from the place of our beginning. Jo Jim, the Kanza interpreter whom we hired overtook, and joined our company at camp.

Sunday Sep. 5.
We spend the day in camp, My writing desk is the pad of a packsaddle, one board of the saddle being tied fast to a stake on the out-side, the other board necessarily projects from the stake, and forms a kind of shelf. The two pads are then suffered to fall on to the shelf part, and forms a kind of cushioned table.

My seat is formed upon three stakes driven into the ground, with sticks fastened across the top so that the seat is made firm.

Monday Sep 6.
Left Calvin in charge of the camp, and Rice & I commenced our work. We had to go about 5 miles to find the line of the Kanza lands at the crossing of the Kanzas river. We crossed Soldier creek one mile & three quarters from the river. The creek is three rods & fifteen links between the banks.

About a mile and a half north of us between the creek and river is the village of Chachhaa hogeree, Prarie-village. It contains about 50 houses, with say three families to the house. All except three or four persons, started yesterday and today, on their hunting excursions. Sent the Kanza interpreter Jo Jim to try to get some sweet corn of them but he was unsuccessful. From the creek, which we could not cross with our horses, I returned to camp with Quick and his interpreter. The surveyors got in at dusk, I having sent horses to meet them.

Tuesday Sep 7
Sent four men early to take a Bee tree which they had found yesterday. They got no honey of consequence. We left camp a little after 9. The packhorses encamped so far ahead that it was dark before the surveyors came in. We were encamped on a branch of Soldier creek. I had sent a man to meet them, who returned at sundown without having seen them. I took Connor and rode till dark before we met with them.

Wednesday Sep. 8
It rained on us last night, and I omitted to state that I have made some beginning for a mission on Missouri above Cantonment Leavenworth sixty or eighty miles. In June & July a treaty was held with various tribes-viz Sauks, Foxes, Iowas, Otoes, Omaha, and Sioux assembled at Prarie-Du-Chein, at which treaty it was stipulated that $3000. pr. Ann. for ten years, be paid by government for education purposes among those tribes.

Dougherty, the Agt., since I met with him at the garrison suggested that a suitable place for a mission would be on a tract of land above

354 THE KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

the garrison, between the two Nemaha rivers, on the Missouri, about ten miles wide and twenty miles long, which had been set apart at the late treaty for the use and settlement of half-breeds. The land is to be held by them as other Indians hold their lands, though the Prest. of the U. S. may grant to any one of them a tract, not exceeding 640 acres, in fee simple. Maj. Dougherty thought that some or all of the three thousand dollars mentioned above might be obtained to aid an institution there (though I am of opinion that there has been a contrivance among some whites to apply it to Johnson's School) [29] In conference with him, he has assured me that he would do all in his power to promote such an undertaking.

I have stated to him that we would turn our attention to the matter. On Sunday last I wrote to Mr. Cone on the subject, and have requested that he & the Board resolve to enter upon the work. I state to him that in event of the Board not seizing upon these openings, that others of us intend to improve them. See my letter to Cone, which may be considered as part of this Journal. [30]

We left our camp after 12 oclock, passed the surveyors who had commenced their work pretty soon, and encamped on the Soldier creek, left of our line. The surveyors came in at dark.

Thursday Sep 9
Our work went on as usual- surveyors made seven miles today. We encamped half a mile to the east of our line, on the upper branches of (perhaps) Sotraell creek. [31] Connor and the Delaware Chief went a hunting about 9 o'clock yesterday morning, and have not yet returned. I had been very particular in telling Connor where we intended to encamp.

A little after dark a white man express arrived with dispatches from Genl. Clark & Maj. Dougherty, sent by the latter. Genl. Clark has sent us plats of the meanderings of Missouri and Kanza rivers, the Kanzas reservation &c. He advises that we should not run farther west than the Republican river because we should likely run onto Pawnee lands, and because we should be in danger of injury from the Pawnees.

Dougherty wishes to know what I intend to do, and whether we

BARNES: EXPLORING EXPEDITION OF 1530 355

wish him to delay a tour up Missouri on which his business pressingly calls him, to attend our interview with the Pawnees. I am gratified with Clark's attention in this case, Dougherty appears to be very prompt and obliging.

I replied to Dougherty, and early on

Friday Sep. 10
I started the express back

Surveyors commenced early. We passed the northeast corner of the Kanzas reserve, and encamped on the sources of Grasshopper river. We have not been able to kill either Deer or Turkeys, or any thing larger than squirrils. We have found wild honey frequently. Today we have found and taken two trees.

Near night Connor & the Chief got in to camp.

Saturday Sep. 11.
I went with some hands and enlarged the mound at the north east corner of the Kansa reservation. We had rain. We found trouble to get a good camping ground, which was on Grasshopper creek. Killed a rattlesnake in the midst of our encampment sometime after we had been tramping over it. Surveyors came in at 4 oclock- Jo Jim killed a deer.

Sunday Sep. 12.
We spend the day in Camp. Every night we tie up three horses, so that if the Indians should steal the others we might still have some. Our horses sometimes get affrighted and one taking alarm from another, all are put in motion, and soon would leave us, were they not securely hobbled. By tying up some of them there is less danger of the others leaving camp.

Monday Sep. 13.
We surveyed to the northern line of Del. lands, and begun a mound ten feet square at the base, & six feet high. Removed our encampment to another branch of Sotrael. Elk sign has been seen for several days. Today a Buck Elk stalked near the camp, Two of the men got each a shoot at him, but he escapedFound iron ore on Delaware lands near the corner. The Doctor killed three Turkies.

Tuesday Sep. 14
Set our course as nearly towards Cantonment Leavenworth, (which is one of our points) as possible. Finished our mound, and made six miles. Encamped on a small branch of same creek. Two of our men fired on a large flock of Elk.

Wednesday Sep. 15.
Moved our encampment a few miles down the same creek. Three men started early hunting. One of them came in, unsuccessful, after dark. The other two remained absent.

356 THE KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

Thursday Sep. 16
Found difficulty in crossing two Creeks. Encamped on a branch of same creek, Two lost men still out-- Fired the prarie, that by the immense, column of smoke that arises by the burning of old grass mingled with the green, they might see where we were. One of our men killed four turkeys.

Friday Sep. 17
Two lost men not returned. We saw a smoke rise not many miles from us, and thought it possible that our lost men had given a signal. We answered by kindling two fires in the grass at different times, but heard nothing from them. Found two bee trees, but obtained little honey. Discovered a large flock of Elk at a distance, about middle of afternoon. Stopped & encamped. Called in the surveyors, and four of us remaining to keep camp, the residue of our company made an unsuccessful effort to take an Elk.
Encamped on a branch of Stranger creek as we supposed.

Saturday Sep. 18
Paid Jo Jim our interpreter with Kanzas & others, and sent him home, supposing that we should have no further need for him until we should re-fit for another tour. Took a bee tree. Came in sight of Missouri river, say seven miles ahead. Found that we were too far north for the garrison. Turned at right angles southwardly. Found a grove of wood & brush, and encamped on a water of Missouri.

Sunday Sep. 19.
No water for our horses, and food poor, we removed four or five miles-(without surveying) and encamped on Stranger creek.

Monday Sep. 20.
Yesterday my son narrowly escaped serious injury by the kick of a horse on his head and arm. Being in want of meat, Jackson shot a fine buck. We brought up our off-set line, and turned towards the garrison again. Encamped on a small stream running into Missouri.

Before we left camp this morning, Cap. John Quick the Delaware Chief told me that he had seen enough to satisfy him. he would go on to the Garrison and wait until I arrived and then go on home. He could not continue longer with us. They wished to come to this country before cold weather- they had many women & children who would suffer much with cold if it should be late in the season, &c. &c.

He has all along indicated no disposition to stay long with us. After he had started I called to him and made a second effort to pursuade him to stay. The day was cloudy and I feared he could

BARNES: EXPLORING EXPEDITION OF 1830 357

not find the garrison. I promised to send a man in with him on the following day. He stayed with us.

Tuesday Sep. 21
We have kept up one Sentinel at a time during the night for most of the tour. Last night we dispensed with it, and think of not having guard while near the garrison.

Delaware Chief went for the garrison attended by one of our soldiers. Saw at a great distance in the prarie a company of Indians, amounting, to one hundred going towards the garrison.

Found ourselves getting too near Missouri and had to make another offset. Had to travel at least two miles along a difficult stream to find water for encampment, which was not far from the river.

Wednesday Sep. 22.
Encamped on a branch of Stranger, fired the prarie for a signal to our men sent to the garrison.

Thursday Sep. 23.
Rode out with son and ascertained the best way to get to the garrison. Sent Calvin and a man to the garrison for supplies. Our man returned from the garrison with a large bundle of papers, letters, &c. Altho. we were no more than 12 or 13 miles from the garrison, such had been his awkwardness that he and the Delaware did not reach it until the second day, & they as awkwardly slept out last night on their return.

The Indians we saw passing in were the Pawnees we had sent for. Dougherty & Davenport requesting me to go in as soon as possible to attend the council, I rode to the garrison but it was too late to call the council.

Connor & Vincent, who got lost on the 15th did not go together. Each had made the best of his way to the garrison and after three or four days reached it. Vincent returned to us today with our express. Connor started alone yesterday to find us, crossed our trail more than once, We had fired the prarie, notwithstanding all which he slept alone in the woods and after spending two days, was making his way back to the garrison last night when, a little after dark as I was returning to camp, I met him and took him with me.

Friday Sep. 24.
We moved our encampment further down Salt creek. 24 Went to the garrison. Had a talk with the 100 Pawnee chiefs & Wariours. Dougherty stated I had been sent to survey lands of the Delawares, and that if any of them should meet with any of our party, they must treat us well, &c. [32] I said a few words

358 THE KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

to them, enjoining on them to be peaceable to the Delawares. John Quick made a short speech to them, expressive of friendship &c. Dougherty gave them a considerable amount of presents which was due them, consisting of powder, lead, blankets, tobacco, &c. &c.

Lately the Kanzas sent to Dougherty to say that the 9 horses lately stolen by them from the Pawnees they could not restore, because their hunting party had taken them with them. This is as it usually happens in those cases. Dougherty now told this to the Pawnees, and said the Kanzas have gone to hunt. If you should meet with them I don't wish you to attack them, but if they attack you, I don't want you to hold down your heads.

Agents might prevent wars among these tribes. Had the Kanza agent seized the nine horses, or taken nine others of the Kanzas, and forbid a repetition of such tresspass upon a severer penalty, and returned the horses to Pawnee Agt. Dougherty; if the latter had restored them with damages, and forbidden retaliation by the Pawnees upon a penalty of witholding some of their next year's presents, how much better it would have been than for both agents in this indirect way to encourage hostilities among them!

I sent Connor to bring hither Maj. Campbell, to adjust our business with Quick.

Saturday Sep. 25.
The Pawnees set out for their place. They are a naked wretched looking people, more fierce and brave looking than the Kanzas, but not less miserable in appearance.

Quick & I meeting some of them this morning, a chief entered into communication with Quick by signs. It was amusing to see them enquiring of each other how many nights journey they had to their homes, promising to be friendly &c. The Pawnee at length not well understanding the signs of the Delaware, invited him to the garrison where they could obtain an interpreter. I went on & informed

BARNES: EXPLORING EXPEDITION OF 1830 359

Maj. Dougherty. The chief difficulty was the Pawnee had understood that the Delaware had invited him home with him. Whereas the Del. had only stated that hereafter they should meet and talk more, and that if either should go to the others place, he should be received with friendship, as also their people severally. Sunday Was informed that Maj. Campbell had gone higher up Sep. 26 Kanza river (which turned out to be a mistake) Sent express to intercept him, and inform him where we are. We remained in camp. In the evening Shane and Connor arrived. Campbell is sick and cant come.

Monday Sep. 27
Took Quick and Shane and showed them where we intended to run the lines of the garrison reserve. [33]

Tuesday Sep. 28
Took a certificate from Quick that he was satisfied with the land, the lines, &c. and he made a written request that government aid them in their new home, in making fields and houses, and in such other respects as the Govt. should perceive their wants required. He stated also that they had exchanged lands with the expectation that here their posterity would be allowed a residence as long as any of them remained on earth. In order to satisfy them that all was secure, they wished to obtain from the U. States such an instrument of writing as that by which the U. States secured land to their own white citizens. This is perhaps the first instance of an Indian tribe asking a patent for their lands.

We had the documents witnessed by several officers in the garrison, and others-and the two interpreters Connor & Shane.- Furnished Connor & Quick with eight days' rations, and, in the afternoon, started them home.

[Marginal note.] For Shane's communication relative to the wish of the Shawanoes for a school, see, page for Note Oct. 17.

Quick on leaving gave many assurances of his satisfaction and friendship, &c. among which he stated, more than once, that he had

360 THE KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

travelled much, but had never been treated with so much kindness by any as he had by me, and our company. Wednesday We dined with Dr. Bryant [34] and attended to small matters.

Thursday Sep. 29
Move our encampment a little lower down Salt creek35 Sep. 30 on account of obtaining food for our horses. Surveyors at work.

Friday Oct. 1

Saturday Oct. 2
Surveyors, I with them, worked on the lower line of the Military reserve. Surveyors at work on the lines of the Military Reserve.

Sunday Oct. 3
Remain in camp.

Monday Oct. 4.
On a hill not far from the garrison we discovered, as we went out a few weeks since, eight mounds or heaps of stone. This morning we examined them, and excavated one. The stones were not hewn-and were placed circular as though a building had been the design. Within was earth. We found in the one excavated human bones, apparantly scorched with fire, coal-burnt earth, and stone that had been in the fire. The bones were so much decayed that it could scarcely be seen to what part of the body they belonged except the sculs, some of which appeared to have belonged to adults and some to children, and a few other bones. They were situated as exhibited below. [MS. illegible] It was not a mere burying place, because the bodies had been burned. The burning was not intended to reduce the bones to ashes, because this had not been done. It was, I suppose, or rather, they were "High places" in which worship was performed anciently, agreeably to the account in Scripture of heathenish customs. Human sacrifices had been offered on them, or rather in them for they had been a kind of kiln, or furnace, surrounded with a stone wall and the corps and fire within. I should think that the victim had been placed upon a wooden scaffold, or among a pile of wood. The corpse, or corpses, part consumed, had lastly been covered with earth, or with vegtable substance and earth mingled. [36]

BARNES: EXPLORING EXPEDITION OF 1830 361

We then went to examine a coal mine we had discovered a few days before, and found it an extensive stratum in the bottom of Salt creek, a little within the military reserve, and apparently very good.

Tuesday October 5.
Two of our horses cant be found. Packed the others, and about two o'clock left camp- In crossing the creek at our encampment one of our horses fell back from a steep bank they had to ascend, into the water. He could not rise until the pack ropes were cut, and the packs removed- packs in the water.

Five of our soldiers are with the surveyor, two of those left too drunk to be of much service. Our packs very heavy, one especially, Calvin had a difficult time to get started and to get on. Overtook surveyors, and encamped on a branch of Salt creek about six miles from garrison.

[Marginal note.] Our company now consists of 15 soldiers, and six of us who came from Fayette, in all 21 with 14 horses- The two that were taken by express to Pawnees, much reduced.

Calvin remained behind, with one of the soldiers to look for the lost horses.

During the time we have been in the vicinity of the garrison, I have had a troublesome time, again, with Maj. Davenport the Commander. He from our first entering upon this work manifested a most disobliging Spirit.

I gave him notice that we should need six additional men to make up our surveying party for our long route, and asked for such an escort as he deemed expedient. He appeared to get into a fever, insinuated that an escort was not necessary, but if one was necessary it wod. require three of his four companies. He said the commanding General Atkinson had ordered that not more than twenty men in all should accompany us. I held all my intercourse with him in writing, so that these papers might speak for themselves.

I at length informed him that I asked for no escort unless he deemed one necessary, I did not think he would have the hardihood [to] say one was not necessary. This however he ventured to say, as by this means he could take advantage of my remark, and not send any. He then endeavoured to keep me from getting the six

362 THE KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

additional men for the surveying company. When he found I insisted on these, and he dare not refuse, he then insisted that I should go on a week, and then send for them. I let him know that I was in immediate want of them.

For five or six days previously I had informed him that I wished to leave the neighbourhood on monday morning. He still put the matter off. On tuesday early I wrote him I wished to leave that morning. He at length wrote me that they would be detailed that afternoon. On account of his delays we had not the requisite number of persons to assist us. He seemed to wish to subject us to inconvenience.

He had wheedled Maj. Beauchamp, the Sub. agt. to say he thought there was no danger. I saw Beauchamp and when I told him the story of the affair he appeared to feel embarrassed. I stated that no company, even down to one that came in a few days ago, ever thought of going almost half way to the mountains from State of Missouri without being prepared to defend themselves against the Pawnees. The Sec. War had thought an escort necessary- Maj. Riley, who lately commanded the garrison, had thot. two companies necessary- Genl. Clark, of St. Louis-Dougherty, Campbell, M. G. Clark, and others thot. one necessary, and every body would think an escort necessary and even Davenport never ventured to say one was not necessary until from my remark, he by saying so could withhold the escort.

Having discovered the disobliging disposition of Davenport on our first coming into this country, I had despaired of a competent escort, and therefore had confer[red] with Dougherty on the best method of accomplishing the work without one. It was hoped that when the Pawnees would be absent on their huntings, we might get thro. their country undiscovered. We, therefore, in council the other day gave them no idea of our going into their country.

Wednesday Oct. 6
My son overtook us with the six men, having found their horses, and brought on the men's provisions. On crossing a little creek near camp, mired a horse, and had to pull him out of the mud with ropes, &c. Our horses so heavily packed, & the men so awkward, and some of them drunk [so] that we had some difficulty to get on. Encamped on a branch of Stranger creek. Sent a man to aid the surveyors to find the camp. He awkwardly led them much astray. I heard him blowing, & shooting, and took a man and went out and fired my gun several times, before we discovered them coming in. Found honey today

BARNES: EXPLORING EXPEDITION OF 1830 363

Thursday Oct. 7
Soon after we left camp, discovered a company which turned out to be Kanzas, who had been out hunting, & trapping. The company halted in a vale out of sight and more than a mile from us, and one rode across in great haste to meet us. I gave him a small piece of tobacco. He said there was a man or more with them, who wished to speak to me. I informed him that on such a hill I would stop to speak to them. On which he rode back in equal haste, and brought a half-breed who could speak English. In the evening three more came to our camp, on Stranger creek. This creek was so deep that the chain men had to swim it.

Friday Oct. 8
We found a good crossing for our horses, on Stranger Creek, a mile above our camp, and where was a good mill seat-water enough, now, to turn a grist mill most of the time.

Found a piece of gypsum here- Found a piece some days since on waters of Missouri. Encamped again on main Stranger creek.

Saturday Oct. 9.
Discovered a large flock of elk. Sent three men, one of whom fired and wounded one of them. But we did not get him. Encamped on a small branch of Stranger, 26 miles from the garrison.

Thus far the country about the garrison and this way is very well supplied with springs of water, even at this time of great drought.

Sunday Oct. 10
Remained in camp on a small branch of Stranger. Jo Jim, whom I, the other day employed to go with us as interpreter, came to us. Brot. letter from M. G. Clark S. agt. for Kanzas. Clark advises that we take care to avoid depredation from both Kanzas, and Pawnees. A quarrel, a few days ago, took place between some white men hunting bees, and consequently trespassing on the Indians' lands, and in the affray a Kanza was killed.

Jo Jim can speak no other Indian language than Kanza. I have not been able to procure a man who speaks Pawnee. This is a serious misfortune, and much increases our liability to be injured by them.

Monday Oct. 11.
We encamped on the main Sautrell.

Tuesday, Oct. 12
Encamped on a branch of Sautrell.

Wednesday, Oct. 13
Reached the mound we erected, some weeks ago, at the commencement of the Delaware outlet. In running from the garrison to this place a distance of nearly 46 miles, the surveyors struck within less than two chains of the mound, -distance, also,

364 THE KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

agreed with our calculations. I was much gratified with the accuracy of our work. We encamped a little above the mound.

Thursday Oct. 14
Grass for our horses, is every day becoming more scarce. The season is remarkably dry. The whole country around us, has burned over today. We had encamped in a creek bottom where there was least danger of the fire approaching us, and still, it sometimes seemed as though we should not escape. We were much annoyed by smoke and more than once, had to beat out the approaching fire. We did not leave camp. Some of the soldiers erected a couple of mounds.

Friday Oct. 15.
We steered our course due west and encamped on the sources of the Soldier. Difficult to find tolerable food for our horses. Had to beat out the fire to save a little spot for our horses. In a day the whole country put on its black and dismal dress. The dust arising from the burnt grass, and the blackened weeds and shrubbery, annoys our eyes, and blackens face, hands, and clothes.

Saturday Oct. 16.
Sent Jo Jim & a soldier, with two horses, to the garrison for our papers, and for some additional supplies for the soldiers. After much searching for food for our horses, stopped in, not a good place, on another branch of Soldier creek, some two or three miles from our work.

Sunday Oct. 17.
Remain in camp on the sources of Soldier creek. Omitted Oct. in Note, Sep. 28. Shane informs that since my talk to the Shawanoes respecting a school, Cummins the principal U. S. Indian Agt. for the Dels. and Shawanoes, had stated to the Shawanoes, that he had been directed by the Prest. of the U. States to say to them that if they would send some of their male youths to Johnson's school, in Kentucky, it would be well for them, that they would there be instructed at a cost to the Shawanoe nation of two hundred Dollars a head. [37]

Again. If they would accept of a school in their neighborhood, he had been requested by the Methodist congregation to inform them that they should be furnished with a mission in their place.

To the former, the Shawanoes replied that they wished to send their youths to school. But the tribe were poor, and could not spare the money it would cost them to send them to Ky. Moreover they would prefer sending to a school nearer at hand.

BARNES: EXPLORING EXPEDITION OF 1830 365

To the latter proposition they replied, that I had lately offered them a school. They had deferred their answer until I should be returning from the tour. But they had determined to accept of my offer.

Monday Oct. 18
Had a little rain last night-the country is exceedingly parched with drought. When we got on to the praries, the ashes from the recently burned praries, and the dust and sand raised so by the wind that it annoyed us much, the wind rising, I found that the dust was so scattered that it became impossible to perceive the trail of the surveyors, who had gone a few hours ahead of the horses. While conversing with Calvin about the course we should go, we discovered the atmosphere ahead darkening, & as it had become cloudy, we fancied that a misting rain was coming upon us, and made some inquiry respecting the security of our packs. A few minutes taught us that what we had fancied to be rain, was an increase of the rising dust, sand, and ashes of the burnt grass, rising so much and so generally that the air was much darkened, and it appeared on the open praries as though the clouds had united with the earth. Our eyes were so distressed that we could scarcely see to proceed, It was annoying to our lungs. The black burnt grass, lodging on our hands and faces, and each one rubbing his watery eyes with pain, soon occasioned a most horrid appearance, our clothes also blackening fast. The wind blew incessantly and excessively severe.

We succeeded in finding a mile stone, and steering our course as well as we could reached a wooded creek some four miles from our encampment. This afforded a partial relief from the wind and sand. Having left the horses and men in charge of Calvin, I with another man had just found the line along which the surveyors had passed, and was about to select a camping ground, when we met a man whom the Doctor [sent] to inform me that he could not proceed with his work, & that they waited for us in a wood a mile ahead.

It being very difficult for me to look at my pocket compass I told the soldier who had just returned, to lead us back. He set off with great confidence that he could find the way and in a few minutes was leading us north instead of west. He was unwilling to be called back, and insisted that he was right. On finding the surveyors, we encamped for the residue of the day. Even in this wood, and after the wind had somewhat abated, the black ashes fell on us considerably.

366 THE KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

Tuesday Oct. 19.
The wind and dust were severe, but not so bad as yesterday. We worked all day- late before we encamped, which was on a large creek, supposed to be Vermillion. [38]

Wednesday Oct. 20.
Calvin surveyed today- Had to turn out of our way two miles or more to find food for our horses. Encamped on a branch of Blue river.

Thursday Oct. 21.
Again had to leave our course, with the packhorses, two or three miles to find grass. Late before the surveyors came into camp. We had got into a tract of a few miles square, which had not been burned. While in the act of pitching our tents, we discovered the fire coming towards us with alarming rapidity. We set fire in the grass in self defense.

The fires around us were sublime-the long lines and the flame ascending ten, fifteen, and sometimes 20 feet high. On seeing these praries on fire in such a dry time as this we cease to wonder that the wood does not increase faster-we only wonder that a vestige of wood is left. It was in the night before the surveyors got in to camp. We have seen sign of Beavers and Otters, for a few days.

Friday Oct. 22
Crossed the trail of about ten waggons, and perhaps 7 horses which had gone out to the Rocky mountains, and returned since last spring, in the employ of trappers of fur-white men. Crossed an old beaten path. Reached & crossed Blue river, [39] and encamped not far west of it. Saw fresh sign of Indians-suppose they have discovered us, as we saw where one had been running. Men killed two Deer. Jo Jim & the soldier sent express to the garrison seven days ago, overtook us with flour, our papers, &c. Dougherty urges me to endeavour to establish a school on Missouri above the garrison as soon as possible, and beleives that a mission there would be greatly encouraged by the Indians.

Saturday Oct. 23.
Encamped on a branch of Blue river. Grass poor. Nash killed a very fat buck. Fresh sign of Indians. Seen a trail of horses-some tracks show that the Indians had been running

Sunday Oct. 24.
Blue river is a stream of beautiful clear water 99 yards wide, strong current, averaging one foot and a half in depth. Now very low. Heads near, and above the Grand island of

BARNES: EXPLORING EXPEDITION OF 1830 367

the great Platt. It is a limestone country. Hilly near the river. Hills much washed, stony on sides, appearing white with the white limestone, sometimes of clay appearance-vallies & level up land good.

Oct. 24 Waters of Blue river, north of Kanza--108 Miles west of Cantonment Leavenworth. At Camp.

One of our horses, a hardy little fellow that I have long had in use, Broke his left hind leg in the night, by fastening it under the root of a tree, as he attempted to descend a bank ten feet high and almost perpendicular. The sentinel was driving him and another horse back to the company, when it occurred. I suppose the man had hurried them in the dark, and being hobbled before, the horse was forced down.

The grass is so poor for our horses, which are fast failing for want of food, that we deemed it indispensable to move on, in hope of reaching the Republican fork of Kanza, where we hope to find better food. Before we left camp we gave our poor little horse a bucket of water, and a lick of salt, & left him to hop about on his three legs until he dies-I have no hope of his recovering.

Carrot, who, on the first tour, was twice found asleep on post, was again detected in the same offence last night. On the former occasions he had escaped with a mere reprimand. It now appeared necessary to punish in some way. Immediately after breakfast, the company were convened, Carrot plead guilty and begged pardon for this time only. He plead with tears, and I soon became quite willing to let him off, provided I could do it in a way that would do us no injury in future. I asked if any of his associates would be security for his better behaviour. Several spoke, but so far from even requesting his pardon, they refused to vouch for his good conduct, expressed opinion that he ought to be punished. I told him then that I would compel him to carry a pack today- This I did not so much for a punishment really, as to show him that we would punish him, more severely for a repetition of the offence. I directed the corporal to prepare such a load as he deemed proper, reserving to myself the right to lighten it in case I thought it too heavy. The fellow padded on, and was very attentive to business in the run.

After searching much for green grass for our horses, we encamped on a branch as we suppose of Blue river. Grass poor indeed. Men killed two deer-some of the Deer are remarkably fat.

368 THE KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

Monday Oct. 25.
Wind very high. Proceeding about three miles we came to a few acres of bottom land on a creek that had not been burnt, and where the grass was better than we had found it for a day or two, we encamped. Dried the venison we had lately killed.

Tuesday Oct. 26.
Wind very high, scarcely allowing us to pass. Encamped on a creek of the Republican, or Panee river. [40] Crossed a trail of Indians going to our left-lately supposed to be Otoes or, Kanzas. Saw much iron ore today.

Found a hill of iron ore-indeed the most of the stone appears to be of that quality, though most of it is sandy.

Wednesday Oct. 27.
Passed some high rocky isolated hills, in which cliffs of sandy rocks appeared to contain much iron-much of the stone looked as if it had been melted in a furnace, and when broken exhibited the appearance of newly broken pot metal. The stone is Shelly-the whole exhibiting volcanick appearance. We took some very curious specimens of hollow, and mineral stones.

We found Coperas on a creek further on. And immense rocks of soapstone above ground.

We had hoped to find food for our horses better on the river than on smaller streams. Today we reached the Republican, or Pawnee river, and to our great disappointment we found it more destitute of grass than any place we had seen where wood was to be found. The river runs over a bed of sand-the banks low, and all the bottom lands are a bed of sand white and fine, and now as dry as powder ought to be. I never before saw a river along which we might not find some rich alluvial moist bottoms, on which, at this season of the year could be found green grass. But here there is, in a manner none.

We examined along the river for grass until satisfied that none could be found and then turned back to a creek we had passed five miles back. We met the surveyors, and reached our creek a while in the night, having kept our poor horses in motion from 9 oclock in the morning. On reaching the creek we bogued along its banks by moonshine, a half a mile, and finding a little spot not burned over, we halted. Our poor horses had miserable fare. Some places along the river for half a mile or a mile in a place, there is no timber. A grove then occurs on one side, which, at a distance ap-

BARNES: EXPLORING EXPEDITION OF 1830 369

pears, but on reaching it, no timber is found more valuable than cotton wood and Elm.

The scarcity of wood on the river and the sandiness & poverty of the bottoms, greatly discouraged me as to the country- While the great scarcity of food for our horses made us fear that we should not be able to proceed much further.

Yesterday killed a Raccoon- today killed a Deer and Turkey.

Thursday Oct. 28.
Cannot proceed on our way westward today, for want of food for our horses- Surveyors went on to run a few miles, and to cross the river with their line. We sent down and up Coperas creek in search of grass. Moved camp a mile up the creek, and guarded the horses, unhobled, along the brink of the water, where was still a little green though coarse & hard, grass that had escaped the destruction occasioned by the great drought, and the ravages of the fire.

Friday Oct. 29.
Our line was seven miles ahead of us. We started early. From appearances we were afraid to cross the river lest we should not be able to get food for our horses, and proceeded up a creek on the N. East side of the river, where after much searching we found a tolerable place, for these times.

Saturday Oct. 30.
Started early, crossed the river-travelled and searched for grass till after sun set. Found a pretty good place. Surveyors urged on by our necessity for grass, made eleven miles. Encamped half a mile south west of the river, on a little creek. Our western line has now passed near the river 18 miles. The river averages in width 140 yards-though where measured it was only 126 yards. banks low-no rocks-all sand along it-its waters turbid-about half the bed covered with water-now very low average of water say 14 inches-tolerably brisk current. Prarie bottoms four or five miles wide-but little hill back-land tolerably good, except the sand near the river. Quick sand in the river. Epsom salts are deposited in the sand beaches so as to be perceiveable both to the eye, and by the taste. Pass two isolated ledges, or heaps of iron looking sand stone, one on each side of the river. Picked up pieces of an earthen pot, made by the aborigines in olden times. A few days ago I found the iron and brass parts of a short gun, in the Prarie-such as are much used by the Indians near the mountains. The wood part had been burned with the burning of the praries-one of our men found a knife. Night before last Jo Jim caught two Beavers in Steele traps that he set. Saw tracks of horses & mules--

370 THE KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

Indian sign-yesterday & today-not fresh. Many old tracks of Elks, tracks of one drove of Buffaloe. Crossed today three or four old paths leading to and from the river. Neither of our interpreters can tell whether we are below or above what is called the old Pani village,[41] though both are half-Indians, and have been in this country before. We know that we are below, but how far below we are at a loss to judge. Killed many fat turkies within two or three days. I shot one this evening.

Sunday Oct. 31.
Remain in camp. Four men at a time, guarding the horses, and keeping them along the banks of a little creek now dry, where they find a little grass. At the commencement of the high land of the river, a mile from our camp, is a Cliff, two or three hundred yards long, of very coarse sandstone undergoing decomposition. The process has rendered the appearance of the pile romantic in the extreme, excavations ready to pull in immense rocks,-huge pillars standing alone, 15 or 20 feet high, castles resting on a kind of tripod, &c. are exhibited to the fancy. The stone is generally of a reddish yellow, parts, however, are white sandstone.

Monday November 1
We travelled about 4 1/2 miles, and finding better grass than usual, encamped about 12 oclock- Surveyors went on further, & returned to camp. Passd. a very large encampment of Indians, made last spring-there must have been several hundreds of them. Killed six or seven rattle snakes on the open prarie. Killed two Deer & several turkies.

Tuesday Nov. 2.
Dug out a root which bears a fruit like a small squash, the size of a pare on a vine resembling a squash vine. The root is three feet & a half long before branching and [blank in MS.] inches in diameter. I shot a deer, but had not time to follow it to recover it. Jo Jim caught a beaver, caught a badger yesterday and another today. Saw much Indian sign- Saw also Buffaloe & Elk sign. Left the river bottom. Country high, pretty fertile limestone land. Encamped on a creek of the river. Grass very poor water extremely bad. Light of prarie fire discovered to N. West. Johnson, was lost and slept out last night. We discharged

BARNES: EXPLORING EXPEDITION OF 1830 371

several guns last night and this morning to notify him where we were.

Wednesday Nov. 3.
Jo Jim wounded a buffaloe, and others wounded another though neither could be found to day, and we have not time to stop to look after them tomorrow. Saw a flock of Antelopes. Old camping places of Indians seen. Encamped on a water of Solomon river. [42]

Thursday Nov. 4
Saw two Buffaloes early-did not stop to look after them. Saw a village of prarie dogs. Saw antelopes. In the evening saw five Buffaloes-wounded two, but had not time to follow them. Travelling in a small part of the country which had not been burnt, we were stopped by the fire. We set fire in self-defence, but had barely time to get our horses on to the small place we had burned in time to escape disaster from the approaching fires. For a while we were surrounded by flame, tho. not near enough to injure us, and enveloped in smoke. Encamped on a water of Solomon.

Friday Nov. 5
Completed the line of the outlet to 150 miles, and stopped. For some days we have discovered that our horses were failing so fast, that we must soon return, or lose them all. We have therefore risen before day & made extraordinary efforts to accomplish as much as possible while the horses could live. We are sure that we ought not to proceed further, and hope to get our horses back. We are beyond all Indian villages, and 50 miles, or more, into the country of Bufaloes

Fired on a flock of Antelopes. Passed another Village of Prarie dogs. I fired on one, anxious to examine him, but he disappeared in his hole.

After we completed our survey, we turned on to a creek, and were looking for an encampment-the day calm & fair-when suddenly the atmosphere became darkened by a cloud of dust and ashes from the recently burnt Praries occasioned by a sudden wind from the north. It was not three minutes after I had first discovered its approach, before the sun was concealed, and the darkness so great, that I could not distinguish objects more than three or four times the length of my horse. The dust, sand, & ashes, were so dense that one appeared in danger of suffocation. The wind driving into ones eys seemed like destroying them.

372 THE KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

I was more than a quarter of a mile from the pack-horses, with three men, only one of whom was immediately with me, when the storm commenced. Had I not feared that Calvin, with the horses and company, would continue to travel to reach me, and lose himself, I should have sought a low place and concealed my face until the storm had somewhat abated. I led on my horse, having the man who was with me to whip him on, sought the bank of the creek on which I had left the horses and proceeded on it until I reached them. Calvin had prudently halted in a low place, and was waiting for the abatement of the storm. We had great difficulty in making ourselves tolerably comfortable. One tent was prostrated after it was pitched. Mine could scarcely be made to withstand the wind, by tieing to trees.

The Doctor had taken three men and gone to examine some mineral hills. They sheltered for a while beneath a bank -of the creek and about dusk reached our camp.

The storm commenced sun three quarters of an hour high in the evening, and blew tremendously all night. It had abated a little by morning. The dust was most annoying at the commencement. There was no clouds over us.

The termination of our line was about four miles north of Solomon river, in a district remarkable for minerals. Since we came into the vicinity of Republican, or Pawnee river, wood has been more scarce than previously. The creeks, however, are all wooded. Fuel would be sufficient for a considerable population-chiefly Elm, cottonwood, & willow near the rivers- farther from the rivers is more wood on the creeks, and of different kinds.

Some of the country between Pawnee & Solomon is of limestone character though stone scarce generally-assuming more & more of a level character as we proceed westward- Soil generally good -some rich-other of 2d. quality. Water not so plenty nor so good as east of Pawnee.

We stopped 210 miles west of the State of Missouri. The country is habitable thus far.

Saturday Nov. 6
After a severe night, on us & our horses, which in addition to the wind and cold, were almost perishing with hunger, we set off as early as possible-the day freezing cold, and the wind excessive. Killed a poor Buffaloe on Solomon. Took a part of it. Searched much for grass. Travelled about 12 miles, and encamped on the north side of Solomon. Found a little spot not

BARNES: EXPLORING EXPEDITION OF 1830 373

burnt-food miserable, yet better than we have had for a while. Passed some very large encamping places of Indians some made the last summer, and others longer ago. Many buffaloe sculs were placed together at one of them.

Sunday Nov. 7.
Remain in camp. Solomon is here about 70 yards wide, now lowwater at present, where the current is brisk, say 25 yards, shallow on ripples. Water transparent.-its shores, or rather sand beaches whitened with a deposit of salt, and in places, glauber salts. Glauber salts are deposited on the sand beaches of Pawnee river, & on the banks of [blank in MS.] creek where we terminated our survey.

About half a mile above our camp is a salt spring which is a great natural curiosity. (See description on other side) [43] Fresh horse track seen, either Indians, or a wild horse is near.

Monday Nov. 8.
We started early, & travelled till a half past three oclock--Encamped on the south side of Solomon, poor grass. Killed a Deer. Passed where Indians had been encamped hunting & trapping,-about 3, or 4 miles from where we had spent the two last nights. They had left there yesterday or early this morning--went towards Panee river. They had probably discovered us. Passed many old and large camps. Much sign of Bufaloe.

We had proceeded about four miles a little east of S. east, when we again came into a limestone country.

Tuesday Nov. 9
Made about 22 miles and encamped near Solomon, crossed a little of running water, which was salt. Killed a deer, & Badger.

374 THE KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

Wednesday Nov. 10
Traveled east about nine miles, and then ten miles E.S.E. Encamped on a water of Solomon (as supposed) Killed two deer & a badger. No limestone for 12 miles back-occasionally mounds & hill sides of iron looking sand stone. Soil good, for a few miles back resting upon sand of white & red colour, so that banks resembled an old lime kiln.

Thursday Nov. 11
So foggy that we could not see from one end of the line of company to the other. Set pocket compass, my son before, and I in the rear would observe the variation from the true course by the bend of our line. Often stopped to notice the compass. Finding this troublesome, and that the wind blew pretty constantly the same direction, I tied a ribbond to the end of my riding stick, and guided by the direction of the flag proceeded east until after noon, then bore southeast down Nishcoba-or Deep water. [44] Fell in with a flock of about 70 Elks. Killed three, and encamped on Deepwater.

Friday Nov. 12.
Travelled Southeastwardly down Nishcoba, and encamped on its south bank. We had intended to have travelled east from Solomon, until we fell in with Panie river, & made two attempts, but found that we should be thrown on to the smaller branches of streams, where we could find less food for our horses. Saw many elks. Killed a deer. Four Kanzas came to our camp & remained thro the night.

Saturday Nov. 13
Last night we had rain. The country here is moist, and consequently more pleasant to us, & better for the horses. Left Deepwatertravelled east-reached Panee river about oneproceeded down it east, and encamped on the point near the Junction of Panee & Smokey hill rivers. A horse tired and was left behind. Five Kanzas came to us and spent the night. Almost every place burnt over. Little food for our horses.

Sunday Nov. 14
Remain in camp. Found & brot. in the tired horse. Put our horses on to the south side of Smokyhill river, where we found a spot of bottom land not burnt. An old Kanza came to camp, & staid most of the day.

Monday Nov. 15
Crossed Republican river, & proceeded down Kanza on the north side. Two Indians, one an old man; overtook us running, in high state of perspiration, said a great company, returning from their Buffaloe hunt, had come to our camp since we

BARNES: EXPLORING EXPEDITION OF 1830 375

started, and these two had run after us (some three or four miles) to speak to us, & to get a little tobacco. We gave them some, & left them. A horse tired. Left two men to bring him on, who reached camp before dark. Encamped near Kanza river.

Tuesday Nov. 16
Branded our tired horse with a stirrip iron, and left him at camp. Encamped on Black paint creek, near an encampment of Indians, one of whom I hired to go and bring on, if he could, the tired horse to the Kanza agency.

Wednesday Nov. 17.
Met several Kanza hunters-give all we meet a little tobacco. Encamped on Kageshingah, on crossing crk.

Thursday Nov. 18
Encamped on a small creek near Kanza river.

Friday Nov. 19
Reached the Kanza agency. Obtained corn for our hungry and poor horses- spoke to Clark, the Agent respecting a school, &c. for the Kanzas- Made no definite arrangement. Clark promised to receive the tired horse.

Saturday Nov. 20.
Messrs. McCallister & Johnson, Methodist preachers, arrived last night. They purpose establishing a school &c. among the Kanzas. They, or, some others of that society had been here previously. I knew nothing of their intentions until since I spoke to Clark yesterday. They have, also, a few days since, made proposals to the Shawanoes to furnish them with a school, &c. I told them that our Society had made formal proposals to the Sec. War, a year and a half ago, to establish a mission among the Kanzas. Also, that I had spoken to the Shawanoes on my way up, & expected to receive their answer on my way down. But, I wished not to throw any obstacle in their way. They united in supposing there would be no disagreeing between them and us-manifested no solicitude about our propositions, and spake with a good deal of confidence relative to carrying forward their propositions. I think they will not likely do much for the Kanzas. Their circumstances are such as to require the exercise of faith & patient perseverance, in labourious, and often discouraging operations, rather beyond what we can expect from that denomination. [45]

376 THE KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

I left the Doctor to bring on the horses and company generally by way of the garrison, where we have business, after he shall have rested and recruited the horses two or three days, and Calvin & I set out by way of Shawanoe Agency, taking two of the stronger of our horses. We had rain-no tent-fixed up a blanket, which partially sheltered us. No grass for our horses-had corn brot. with us from the agency.

Sunday Nov. 21
Passed the new settlement forming by the Delawares on their land. Spent a few minutes with Anderson, their aged principal Chief. He, and his people are much pleased with their new country, as he declared to me. Govt. has not assisted in removal. They, anxious to come set out upon their own resources. Most of the tribe have either arrived, or are on the road. All will be here in the Spring. There is much difficulty, and some scolding among the agents, & superintendent, &c. about furnishing the Delawares. Some hopes had been entertained of profitable business in removing them, that are disappointed, now the Indians have removed themselves. Govt. has not furnished provisions, except to a very small amount, and nothing will be done by the Sec. War, or the superintendent until I make my report, and an appropriation be made by Congress for expenses of that concern.

Monday Nov. 22.
Agreeably to my promise gave notice to the Shawanoes that as they recollected what had passed as we went out, and as I had then promised to call on them on my return, I had done so-because I was the same man every day. If they had any thing to say to me, I was there ready to hear. Only Cornstalk & Perry were present-the others were absent from their villages.

They replied that, since I had passed Mr. Johnson-(the Methodist) had offered them a school, &c. They had answered him, that schools had been offered them repeatedly. They could not accept all-for there would not be room for them. They had been pleased with the talk I had given them relative to the manner of conducting schools, &c. and I had long been experienced in Indian matters, and they had therefore determined to accept of my offer. (This was not the time that the agent, Cummins, spoke to them for the Methodists, to whom they gave a similar answer.) They then said to me we are pleased with your views of the subject, and with your proposition, and cannot do otherwise than accept your offer- We do now accept it, & that matter is settled. [46]

BARNES: EXPLORING EXPEDITION OF 1830 377

Major Campbell, the subagent-in whose house we were, and who is my particular friend on this business, was transported with gladness that these two Chiefs had so cordially agreed to have a school, &c. Fish, and others were known to be friendly, and no unwillingness had been feared except from these two Chiefs. Campbell gave them his hand, and a present. I must now look out for missionaries & means, to build up affairs here, as soon as possible. May the Lord provide!

Sister Shane is sick-thinks she will not live long-has lately been very unwell,-wept freely when I conversed with her-said in her severe illness, she desired greatly to see me once more in the world, and now her requests had been granted. She did not fear to die, &c. Sick as she was she manifested a laudable solicitude for the establishing of a mission among the Shawanoes.

I made myself acquainted with the agency difficulties relative to the removal, and the provisioning of the Delawares, and promised to be the friend of Campbell on this, and some other Indian matters, when I should go to Washington. I also promised to attend to some of Shane's requests. Left Campbell's at 2 o'clock P. M. and lodged in Independence.

at 8 o'clock P. M. slept at Young's-

Wednesday, 24
slept at Davis', and on

Thursday, Nov. 25.
at 8 o'clock P.M. entered the dear circle of my family. For favours to them, and to us who have been absent, let me again erect an Ebenezer. I was absent One hundred and two days.

Notes

1. For a brief history of the founding of Carey mission, see The Kansas Historical Quarterly, May, 1936. McCoy's journal entries covering his tour of 1828 may be found in the Quarterly for August, 1936.
2. McCoy, Isaac, History of Baptist Indian Missions (Washington, 1840), p. 871.
3. Paragraph 1, supplementary article ratified March, 1831, to the Delaware treaty concluded at St. Mary's, in the State of Ohio, on the 3d of October, 1818: "Whereas the foregoing treaty stipulates that the United States shall provide for the Delaware nation, a country to reside in, west of the Mississippi, as the permanent residence of their nation; and whereas the said Delaware nation, are now willing to remove, on the following conditions, from the country on James's fork of White river in the State of Missouri, to the country selected in the fork of the Kansas and Missouri river, as recommended by the government, for the permanent residence of the whole Delaware nation; it is hereby agreed upon by the parties, that the country in the fork of the Kansas and Missouri rivers, extending up the Kansas river, to the Kansas line, and up the Missouri river to Camp Leavenworth, and thence by a line drawn westwardly, eaving a space ten miles wide north of the Kansas boundary line, for an outlet; shall be conveyed and forever secured by the United States, to the said Delaware nation, as their permanent residence: And the United States hereby pledges the faith of the government to guarantee to the said Delaware nation forever, the quiet and peaceable possession and undisturbed enjoyment of the same, against the claims and assaults of all and every other people whatever. "--Treaties Between the United States of America and the Several Indian Tribes, 1778-1837 (Washington, 1837), p. 444.
4. See footnote No. 28.
5. "Indian Removal," 23d Cong., 1st sess., S. Doc. 512, v.2, p. 5.
6. Rice McCoy, eldest son of Isaac McCoy. In his History of Baptist Indian Missions (Washington, 1840), Isaac McCoy wrote, regarding his son's participation in the tour: "From the time of our reaching Fayette, my eldest son had been employed in the practice of medicine, and his prospects were flattering, but he cheerfully consented to gratify my desire to see him labouring in some manner in the Indian country, and took an appointment as assistant surveyor."-p. 404.
7. In March of 1827 Col. Henry Leavenworth was ordered by the War Department to select a site for a cantonment on the left bank of the Missouri river, near the mouth of the Little Platte river. Colonel Leavenworth, however, upon examination of the site suggested, did not find it favorable and chose instead a location on the right bank of the Missouri river. This choice was approved and the post was officially designated Cantonment Leavenworth by Department Order No. 56, of 1827. The primary purpose in stationing troops at this point was for protection of the rapidly increasing trade over the Santa Fe trail. Fort Leavenworth (official designation under Department Order No. 11 1832) figures prominently in the history of the West and the military history of the United States.
8. Near present Glasgow in Howard county, Missouri. The following notice appeared in Niles Register, v. 17 (1819-1820), p. 30: "Chariton, a new town somewhere in Missouri, containing about eighty houses, and several brick buildings are now erecting. A year ago there were only 'five or six unchined cabins' on the town plot."
9. William Clark, U. S. Indian superintendent at St. Louis.
10. The agency was located on the E. 1/2 of the S. E. 1/4 of Section 10, and the W. 1/2 of the S. W. 1/4 of Section 11, Township 12, Range 25, in present Johnson county, Kansas.
11. In his abstract of disbursements for the tour, McCoy gave the name of the express as J. Cohon.-"Indian Removals, 23d Cong., 1st sess., S. Doc. 512, v. 5, p. 229.
12. Shawnee medicine-man, Tenskwatawa, known as the Prophet, commander of the Indian forces at the battle of Tippecanoe He removed from Cape Girardeau county, Missouri, to the Shawnee reservation in present Kansas in 1828 and located a town known as Prophet Town in what is now Shawnee township, Wyandotte county. For an account of his death, November, 1837, see Kansas Historical Collections, v. 9, p. 164, footnote.
13. S. H. Cone, Baptist minister of New York, loyal friend and supporter of Isaac McCoy.
14. White Plume, Kansas Chief. See Kansas Historical Collections, v. 9, pp. 194-196. 15. Article 1 of the treaty made and concluded at St. Louis, Mo., June 3, 1825, between William Clark, superintendent of Indian Affairs, commissioner on te part of the United States, and representatives of the Kansas was as follows: "The Kanzas do hereby cede to the United States all the lands lying within the State of Missouri, to which the said nation have title or claim; and do further cede and relinquish, to the said United States all other lands which they now occupy, or to which they have title or claim, lying west of the said State of Missouri and within the following boundaries: Beginning at the entrance of the Kanzas river into the Missouri river; from thence north to the northwest corner of the State of Missouri; from thence westwardly to the Nodewa river, thirty miles from its entrance into the Missouri; from thence to the entrance of the Big emahaw river into the Missouri. and with that river to its source; from thence to the source of the Kanzas river, leaving the old village of the Pania Republic to the west; from thence, on the ridge dividing the waters of the Kanzas river from those of the Arkansas, to the western boundary of the State line of Missouri, and with that line, thirty miles, to te place of beginning." Article 2 provided for a reservation 30 miles in width on the Kansas river.-Treaties Between the United States of America and the Several Indtan Tribes, 1778-1837 (Washington, 1837), p. 334.
16. Missing from journal.
17. Maj. William Davenport, Sixth infantry.
18. Maj. John Dougherty received his appointment as Indian agent in January, 1827, and began his work at Cantonment Leavenworth in September of that year.
19. Johnston Lykins (1800-1876), son-in-law of Isaac McCoy, had been associated with him in missionary work in Indiana and Michigan and at this time was planning to continue his labors in the west. He founded the Shawnee Baptist mission in present Johnson county, Kansas, in 1831. The trip referred to was from Fayette, Mo., to Carey, Michigan, where he arrangd for the appraisal of the Baptist mission propety at that place, preparatory to the closing of the mission. 20. Maj. Bennet Riley (1787-1853) for whom Fort Riley, Kansas, was named. For a sketch of his life see Kansas Historical Collections, v. 12, p. 1, footnote.
21. Gen. Henry Atkinson, commanding the western army.
22. "War Department, Office Indian Affairs, June 5, 1830. Sir: The Rev. Isaac McCoy is charged by the executive with the duty of running and marking the lines called for by the treaty with the Delaware. You will instruct the agents who have charge of the Indians, owning the country over which Mr. McCoy will have occasion to travel, to inform them of Mr. McCoy's object; that be is under the protection of the United States, and to require their kind and friendly conduct towards him and his party. I have, & c & c. Thos. L. MCKENNEY. To General Wm. Clark, Superintendent Indian Affairs, & c."-"Indian Removals," 23d Cong., 1st sess., S. Doc. 512, v. 2, p. 8.
23. George Vashon, Indian agent for Cherokees West.
24. Treaty with the Delawares concluded September 24, 1829, ratified March 24, 1831. This was a supplemental article to the Delaware treaty concluded at St. Mary's, Ohio, October 3, 1818, and provided for the cession by the Delawares of all lands in the state of Missouri. George Vashon represented the United States at the treaty.
25. Stranger creek rises in the central portion of present Atchison county and flows in a southeasterly direction, emptying into the Kansas river at present Linwood, Leavenworth county. The stream was named O-keet-sha by the Kansas Indians, the word meaning stranger.
26. Daniel Morgan Boone, son of Daniel Boone, pioneer, was appointed farmer for the Kansas Indians in 1827 and located seven miles west of present Lawrence, on the north bank of the Kansas river, at the Kansas agency.
27. Now called the Delaware river. The stream flows in a southeasterly direction across present Jefferson county emptying into the Kansas river near present Perry.
28. "The first surveys in what is now the State of Kansas were made in 1826-7 by Maj. Angus L. Langham of St. Louis but previously from Chillicothe, Ohio. These were 1st the meanders of the Kansas river from its mouth to a point twenty leagues due west of the western boundary of Missouri as provided by the treaty of 1825 with the Kansas tribe as the east boundary of their reservation thence south about 13 miles to the S. E. corner thereof, then west two hundred miles marking the south line thereof. He passed the winter of 1826-7 on Soldier creek about four miles north of present Topeka and about three miles east [of] the Kaw village of the 'Fool Chief.' He had with him a small guard of infantry detailed from Fort Osage. Cantonment Leavenworth was not established as a military post until 1827. The name 'Soldier Creek' was adopted afterwards in honor of the flag that proudly waved over the Major's shanty and the warlike aspect of the camp . . . . -Letter, John C. McCoy to F. G. Adams, February 9, 1885.
29. Under the terms of the treaty of 1825 with the Choctaw, the sum of six thousand dollars was to be allowed the tribe annually for twenty years for the use of schools. A school for boys was established at Blue Springs, Scott county, Kentucky, under the management of the Baptist church and the sponsorship of Richard M. Johnson. The first students were received in the autumn of 1825. Boys from other tribes were also accepted and for a number of years the institution flourished, but by 1842 the Indians began to withdraw their boys on account of dissatisfaction with the results of the educational plan. Soon thereafter the school closed.
30. Missing from journal.
31. Grasshopper river, later known as the Delaware river, was also at this time called Sautrelle river.
32. "Cant: Leavenworth, 22d. Octr. 1830. To Genl. Wm: Clark, Supt. Ind: Affs. Sir, I have the honor to inform you that in obedience to a message that I sent to the Pawnee Republicans, about one hundred of that tribe consisting of their chiefs and head men assembled at this post, on the 24th ult. My object for calling a council of those Indians at this post,/ was to apprise them, that the Government had sent the Rev. Isaac McCoy to run the Delaware lines; and to point him out to them, and advise them how they should treat him, should they meet with him. This I conceived necessary as a precautionary measure, to guard against any difficulty which might possibly ensue, should they meet with his party, without any knowledge of its character. They made professions of friendship in general, and furthermore promised, that if they met with Mr McCoy they would treat him friendly; and also would advise their young men to do the same. They informed me that they met with our Santa Fe traders last summer on the Arkansas, smoked and talked with them friendly. They left here shortly after the Council for their village, apparently much gratified, well pleased with their visit. I thought it the more necessary that I should assemble and talk with the Pawnees, in regard to Mr. McCoy, as the Kanza Indians have recently committed a breach of the treaty of peace between them and the Pawnees, by stealing several horses, and taking one scalp; and supposing it not improbable that the Pawnees would endeavor to retaliate, in which cases their war parties in passing from the Republican to the Kansas village, might possibly fall in with the surveying party, and finding them not far distant from the Kansas village, might without being apprised of their cr chatter seriously interrupt them. After hearing of the conduct of the Kansas, I went to the Kansas Sub Agency; on finding Genl. M. G. Clark Sub Agent absent, I requested of the Kansas a return of the Pawnee horses, which they declined doing. I have not been informed that the Pawnees have made any attempt at retaliation.
Very Respectfully,
Your Obt. Servt,
Joe. Dougherty, Ind. Agt."
-U. S. Indian Superintendency MSS., v. 6, pp. 58, 57.
33. "The treaty which had fixed the boundary of the Delaware country made no provision for reserving to the use of the United States the site of Fort Leavenworth, and to make the survey according to my instructions would have rendered the site ineligible. I therefore assumed the responsibility of making an arrangement with Quick, who acted in behalf of his people, by which a suitable tract was reserved for the use of te garrison. This measure was afterwards approved by the Secretary of War."-History of Baptist Indian Missions (Washington, 1840), by Isaac McCoy, p. 407.
"The McCoy party arrived at Cantonment Leavenworth in the fall of 1830. . . A feeling of uneasiness . soon became manifest, for very soon it was discovered that no provision had been made for reserving the land upon which the Cantonment stood. In fact, if Issac McCoy had followed his instructions literally, he would have included the Post in the Delaware reservation. However, upon his own initiative, he arranged a conference with the Post Commander, Major William Davenport of the 6th Infantry, and the Indian Commissioner, John Quic. Through arrangements with them, a survey of the land immediately surrounding the Cantonment was made and limits were established generally paralleling the present boundaries."--History of Fort Leavenworth, by Elvid Hunt (Fort Leavenworth, 1926), pp. 39-41.
34. Dr. T. S. Bryant, surgeon of Cantonment Leavenworth.
35. Salt creek flows in a northeasterly direction across present Kickapoo township, Leavenworth county, emptying into the Missouri river.
36. "At frequent intervals along Salt Creek I have found evidences of aboriginal encamp ments, showing that it was a favorite haunt of prehistoric man.
In the northwest quarter of the northwest quarter, section 10, township 8, range 22, is a natural basin of perhaps one-half acre in extent, which was evidently at one time either a largely marshy spring or a small lake. It is situated on the east bank of Salt Creek, just south of the /public highway leading to Fort Leavenworth. On the shores of this now dessicated depression have probably been found more aboriginal relics than at any other spot in Salt Creek valley. It was no doubt the site of a workshop connected with the old Kaw village [the lower of two Kansas villages on the Missouri river, both of which had disappeared when Lewis and Clark visited the region in 1804. On the high hill, along what is known as 'Sheridan's Drive,' overlooking this camp site and the whole valley, is a group of ancient mounds, one of which was opened by Mr. McCoy, the government surveyor, in 1830, being the first Indian mound ever explored in Kansas. . . A chain of prehistoric dwelling sites extends the whole length of the Valley, and mementoes of a vanished race are turned up by every plowshare."="Salt Creek Valley," by George J. Remsburg, Leavenworth Times, February 15, 1905.
37. See footnote No. 29.
38. Vermillion creek rises in present Nemaha county, flows across present Pottawatomie county and empties into the Kansas river near present Belvue.
39. The Big Blue river is the largest tributary of the Kansas river. It rises in present Hamilton county, Nebraska, and enters Kansas through present Marshall county; forms the boundary between present Riley and Pottawatomie counties and joins the Kansas at present Manhattan. One hundred miles of its entire length of 250 miles are in Kansas.
40. See "Ferries in Kansas, Part IV-Republican River," by George A. Root, the Kansas Historical Quarterly, v. 3, pp. 240-248.
41. McCoy's reference is doubtless to the Pawnee Indian village thought to have been established in present Republic county, S. 3, T. 2, R. 5w. The surveying party was below this location. John C. McCoy, a member of the party, states in his article "Survey of Kansas Indian Lands," Kansas Historical Collections, v. 4, p. 305: "On the 29th of October we reached the Republican, one hundred and thirty-four miles from Cantonment Leavenworth. This stream was called by the Kansas Indians Pa-ne-ne-tan, or Pawnee river. The river was twelve chains wide where we reached it, at a point near the present town of Clifton, in Washington county. Crossing to the south side, our course took us past near the present site of the town of Concordia. The terminus of our line, one hundred and fifty miles west of the initial points, was in what are now the limits of Smith county, on the top of a ridge west of Oak creek, not many miles from the present town of Cawker City."
42. See "Ferries in Kansas, Part V-Solomon River," The Kansas Historical Quarterly, v. 3, pp. 339-340.
43. McCoy probably intended to add a description of the salt spring but failed to do so and there is only a blank page in the Journal. However, he described it as follows in his History of Baptist Indian Missions, p. 411: "On the Solomon river, a middle branch of the Kauzau, is a salt spring, which is a great natural curiosity. About one hundred yards from the bank of the river, in an extensive level prairie, is a mound of stone, formed by a deep ravine which surrounds it; it is one hundred and seventy yards in circumference at its base, and it rises above the bottom of the ravine thirty feet, and is level on the top, with a diameter of one hundred and twenty feet. The ravine, on one side, is about forty yards wide, and on the other ten. The summit of the mound is about a foot and a half higher than the adjacent plain. No stone of any kind is seen in the vicinity of the place, except that which composes the mound, which appears to be a secondary, shelly, and porous limestone. The sides of the mound, being stone, form a striking contrast with the outer bank of the ravine, which is only earth. The salt water forms a stagnant pool in the centre of the mound, fifty-five feet in diameter, and rising to a perfect level with the summit, so that a wind from any quarter causes the water to run over the opposite side of the basin. About half-way up one side issues salt water, which runs off in a small rivulet into Solomon river. Along this rivulet, and generally on the sides of the mound, salt is chrystallized in such quantities that it might be collected for use. The pool on the top is deep. Solomon river is, by the Kauzaus, called Nepaholla-meaning, water on the hill-and derives its name from this fountain; but the fountain itself is by them called Ne Wôh'kôn'daga--that is, `Spirit water.' The Kansans, Pawnees, and other tribes, in passing by this spring, usually throw into it, as a kind of conjuring charm, some small article of value. Waconda, or Great Spirit Spring, is about two and one half miles southwest of present Cawker City in Mitchell county.
44. Chapman creek, flowing into the Smoky Hill river near present Chapman, Dickinson county.
45. Two Methodist missions were established in what is now Kansas in 1830. The Shawnee Methodist mission was located near present Turner, Wyandotte county. It was moved to present Johnson county in 1839. Thomas Johnson was the first missionary. His brother, William Johnson, was the first Methodist missionary to the Kansas Indians and evidence supports the theory that he began his work among them at the Kansas agency. Marston C. Clark, U. S. subagent at the Kansas agency wrote from that place to U. S. Indian Superintendent William Clark on November 21, 1830: ' . . . Mr. McAllister & Mr. Johnson and myself have selected a site for a school house (near the Agency. Those gentlemen say their school operations will commence at this place in a very short time. I am pleased with those gentlemen, and their views on the subject of teaching Indian children."-U. S. Indian Superintendency MSS., v. 6, pp. 78, 79.
46. There seems to have been a lack of agreement among the Indians themselves on the subject of the proposed mission; also a tendency to accept the proposal of the last one to solicit their consent. Richard Cummins, Indian agent, Delaware & Shawnee agency, wrote/ to U. S. Indian Superintendent William Clark on January 13, 1831:

"I have the satisfaction to state to you, that agreeable to your wishes expressive in a letter dated the 8th Nov. 1830, handed me by the Rev. Mr. McAllister do Thos. Johnson who were appointed to establish a school among the Shawnee Indians, that we have been able to get the consent of the Chiefs to establish a school among what is called Fish's or Jackson's band. The managers of the institution intend instructing the Indian children the arts of mechanism as well as that of literature. Mr. Johnson is at this time making arrangements, and I think shortly after the winter breaks will have the school in operation. I have great hope, that after this school is got into operation, the Indians within my Agency will not be so much opposed to complying with the wishes of the Government, in the arts of civilization."-U. S. Indian Superintendency MSS., v. 6, p. 96.