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Kansas Historical Quarterly - Letters of Julia Louisa Lovejoy, 1856-1864, 2

Part Two
1857

by Louisa Lovejoy

August 1947 (Vol. 14 No. 3), pages 277 to 319.
Transcribed by lhn;
digitized with permission of the Kansas Historical Society.

LAWRENCE, K. T., Jan. 4th, 1857.

DEAR DEMOCRAT [36] :-Most heartily do we wish thee, and thy readers, scattered o'er our dear native hills, a "happy new year." From this far-off land, we greet thee with a thousand good wishes, for thy future prosperity. Thy sympathy with the oppressed and suffering, of this, our adopted home, excites our warmest gratitude.

We had designed, Mr. Editor, that our friends in New Hampshire should have a semi-weekly communication from Lawrence, knowing the anxiety they feel in our behalf; but the ague, that most vexing of all diseases, with which it has been our lot to contend, has had our entire family in his iron grasp, and we have shaken to our heart's content. Let none be dissuaded from coming to Kansas by this formidable enemy, for he can be conquered, and then the victor feels an entire renovation, if not re-organization! Your valuable correspondent, P. H. Townsend, [37] has kept you pretty well posted with regard to matters, in general, in his particular locality, but one item, in which we feel a deep interest, that has occupied much of our time for weeks past, (we mean supplying the destitute) we wish to lay before your readers. And, we wish it distinctly understood, that the destitution and suffering in Kansas, has not been, and we think cannot be, over-rated! Our position as receiver and distributer of boxes of clothing, forwarded by the ladies in Chicago, Ill., has brought us in close proximity with such objects of distress, as we cannot well describe, and has daily stirred the depths of our finer feelings; and where one garment has been received and distributed, one hundred more have been needed to supply the demand, and when the boxes have been emptied, our own trunks have been searched, and our own ward robe examined again and again, to see what more could be spared for those more needy than ourselves. We will give the history of yesterday, and it may serve as a specimen of what has occurred in our dwelling, almost daily, in some shape, for weeks past. At an early hour before breakfast, a man

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in rags, with woe-begone looks and visage, entered our door, seated himself by the stove, it being a bitter cold morning, and began to weep. As soon as he could overcome his emotion, (he evidently had seen "better days," and was unused to asking relief) he told his sad tale. He was sixty miles from home-no money, nothing to feed his team with, his poor family, from whom he had been absent. a long time, he feared, had been greatly suffering. An order for ten dollars removed a heavy burden from the poor man's heart, and he left with a lighter step! Next, in order, came two poor Methodist preachers, from the extreme parts of the Territory, to get clothing to keep them from freezing, as they travelled over these vast prairies thinly clad, to tell the story of the Cross to eager listeners, in rude cabins.-One had lost the most of his clothing by ruffian hands, at the sacking of Lawrence. We had nothing to give, and they were dismissed with the promise that "some clothing should be sent to them," as the "Committee rooms" were empty, "if any could be procured."-Now a man and his son, both heads of families, formerly from Massachusetts, are announced: they, too, with elongated phiz, commence their narration. The house of one had been burned, with all its contents, and the family of the other were suffering for clothing and provisions. Now comes a man with, perhaps, a pleasing countenance and eagle eye, that looks as though he might face death itself, and not flinch. How pertly his pony minces, as he dismounts, and with elastic step, wrapped in his Indian blanket, approaches our door! This is John A. Bailey, the hero of Washington Creek. Now listen, as he tells his tale, over which I had wept, when I read it in the Tribune. He was met on the road by a horde of ruffians, his team taken from him, and, when stripped of all his clothing, but his pants, he was told to take them off, "lest they would be stained with his blood, and thereby be unfitted for their use." "Never," said he, "I'll never part with them but with my life." The cowardly crew then told him to count six paces from them, that they might take good aim at his heart. He did so, and at every step prayed to the Great Deliverer for help! They then fired, and one ball entered his side near his heart, where it still remains! As he fell, all but two mounted their mules and fled, leaving two to strip the body!

Strange to tell, he prayed not in vain; for in his extremity, the God of Daniel rescued his servant, who had trusted in Him for many years, and gave him strength and courage, to grapple with his murderous foe, as he ran to him with uplifted rifle, to beat out his brains. By a miraculous power he conquered both, and by hiding

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in the tall grass, finally escaped alive-his team he never recovered. From easy circumstances in life, he was reduced to the necessity of asking aid-clothing and provisions.

Supper is on the table, when a gray-haired man must be fed, who had borrowed money of his neighbors, and come from Ogden, near Fort Riley, a distance of about 100 miles, with a team after help for his family and his neighbors. And O! such a recapitulation of sickness and poverty. O dear! thought I, must I have no rest on the Sabbath? For, be it known to you, Mr. Editor, and the rest of mankind, minister's wives get tired of being constantly waiting on others for weeks and months in succession, while they are obliged to do, in addition, the entire work of their own household. Thus endeth the chapter.

Mr. Townsend, [38]of Big Springs, called a few days since, to get supplies to distribute in the vicinity where he is teaching, and some cases of a very affecting character had come to his knowledge. A little boy walked five miles, with his feet almost bare, on the frozen ground, to beg of him for help for the suffering family. Mr. T., from his own purse, got him a pair of boots, and if any in New Hampshire have a surplus of clothing, let them come to Kansas, and I'll vouch for them, they'll not long have a redundancy, unless they are made of harder materials than some who have come from Yankeedom. We have HEARD that considerable money and valuable clothing have come from New Hampshire, but have SEEN none, save the articles that were sent from Dover, N. H., to Rev. E. Nute, for our individual benefit. O how a feeling undefinable, welled up from our hearts, that made our eyes moist, and our voice husky, as we received them, as evidence that we were remembered, though faraway. Heaven bless the donors! Dear old Granite State, how we love thee, and any thing from thee is doubly dear.

Yours respectfully,

JULIA LOUISA LOVEJOY.

LAWRENCE, K. T., Jan. 5, 1857.

MR. EDITOR [39] :-. . .You are doubtless, Mr. Editor, well advised in relation to Kansas matters in general, but one error we observe in public papers we wish to correct; that in regard to the wants of the destitute in Kansas being fully supplied for the present winter. Sir, the suffering for want of comfortable dwellings, clothing, food, &c., cannot well be exaggerated. A very hard heart could

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not fail to be moved at what we have almost daily seen and heard for weeks past. But a tithe in money or clothing, either, has been sent to meet the constant demands of the destitute and suffering. One hundred and forty boxes of clothing are delayed at different points on the Missouri River, to be sent on at the opening of navigation in the Spring, all of which is at this moment needed, to shield shivering limbs in ill-provided cabins. What has been received has been of great service, for which in behalf of the suffering poor, we would return our hearty thanks. It has proved a very God send and literally saved those who were ready to perish.

How much has my own dear Lebanon contributed, and to whose care has it been sent?-How have I longed in distributing secondhand garments sent to our care from Chicago, to say to some of the half-naked ones,-"Here is a coat or vest for you from the Ladies of my own native town, or a pair of warm socks, knit by busy fingers from wool that grew on sheep that grazed on those very old hills, o'er which I used to romp in childish glee-Well, I doubt not some-body has received your contributions if I have not. Some of those noble souls who have perilled their all and lost most of all their earthly possessions, in battling the slave-demon in Kansas, we doubt not, have been fed and clothed from my native town.

All, just now, seem to be in good spirits and full of hope, despite their unsupplied wants.-All is quiet in the Territory and promises to remain so. Our friends who design to come to Kansas, should start early in March if they wish to secure choice claims. No danger need be apprehended from the Missourians. Our Governor, we think, is doing as fast in the way of restoring the reign of order and protection, as, under all the circumstances, would be deemed judicious.-[Wilson] Shannon-the wretch!-has lately been in the Territory, to settle up matters in which he was concerned. Mr. Lovejoy dined with this ex-official at Gov. [John W.] Geary's table a few days since, and he (Shannon) hardly presumed to look up and meet the eye of any of the company-so guilty he seemed to feel. After he had left the room, Gov. Geary remarked, that "if Shannon had done his duty things would not be in such a state in the Territory as they now are." The future course of Gov. Geary will be watched with great interest and anxiety.

Most of the prisoners have escaped from their Bastile. [40] With regard to the weather, it was delightful the most of December, but it has now grown intensely cold with only a sprinkling of snow. Prop-

LETTERS OF JULIA LOVEJOY

erty is rising rapidly in value in the Territory, and in Manhattan and Lawrence, especially. Eight lots in Lawrence that were bought a few weeks ago for $200, would now readily bring $500. Men of wealth are coming in, this winter and investing their money in Lawrence, to get ahead of their neighbors, who will delay until navigation opens in the Spring. Claims cannot be had for a small sum in the vicinity of Lawrence, and I wish to say to our friends in New Hampshire, one and all, we have never regretted coming to Kansas, only in regard to the death of our dear child. We have never wavered-never flinched-not even when three times in twenty four hours, we were compelled to flee from our house, to prevent hit by the balls of the enemy their cannon being planted in a direction directly to rake our dwelling. If we were not already in Kansas, knowing what we now do of the Territory, we should make a strong effort to embark on board of the first boat that ploughs the turbid waters of the "mad Missouri," next Spring. Let us have a hand in raising and protecting the tree of Liberty on this virgin soil, is our prayer.

We know nothing of the truth of the statement we see in some of the Eastern papers, relative to an alleged dishonest appropriation of money and clothing contributed for the relief of our needy and suffering settlers. At a recent public meeting, Rev. E. Nute, S. Y. Lum, G. W. Hutchinson and C. H. Lovejoy, clergyman of Lawrence, were chosen a committee to seek out the needy and give orders on the Treasurer to all applicants, known to be suffering while the relief of funds held out. The clergymen have no remuneration for their services. Would that our Lebanon friends could listen to the tales of distress that salute our ears almost daily, we could fill a volume that would bring tears to eyes unused to weeping.-If any have friends in Kansas to whom they wish to send clothing, let them box it up and direct to the name and residence of the individual to whom sent, and to the care of W. F. Arney, [41] Chicago, and it will no doubt be forwarded safely. If money is to be sent, a check should always be used.

JULIA LOUISA LOVEJOY.

FROM KANSAS. -The following is from the wife of a Clergyman with whom we are personally acquainted. By this we see that the demands for aid in Kansas among the suffering, are not yet supplied. Where is our State appropriation? We hope the supplies will be prompt.-ED. ADVOCATE. [42]

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LAWRENCE, K. T., Jan. 5, 1857.

BROTHER Rose:-We have long designed to write to you from this far-off land, for your little sheet, you have so kindly forwarded to our address, but duties of no ordinary character have prevented until now. In our heart, we wish you, and all our dear Green Mountain friends "a happy New Year." It is doubtless known to you and your readers, from letters written for different Eastern papers, that one year and nine months ago, we left our home among the Granite Hills, and took up the line of march for Kansas-the spot that we used to point out in our school-girl days, on Morse's old yellow covered Atlas, as "the Great American Desert, inhabited by buffalo, and roving tribes of Indians,"-this spot we have found, an Eden naturally, a garden in very deed, into which Satan, in the garb of Border Ruffianism, has stealthily crept, and the blood of our murdered brethren cries to Heaven, to avenge their tragic death! Sir, the graves of butchered victims, that "sleep the sleep that knows no waking," on the plains of Kansas, will never be counted up, until the "sea shall deliver up its dead." Only a tithe of the robbery and murder of Free State men, unoffending citizens, has ever reached the public prints. It has been our lot, to live through the entire "reign of terror" and the horrors of the scenes, through which we passed, have not been, and we think cannot be exaggerated! Take for instance weeks previous to the last memorable invasion of the 14th of September, when almost every man you met was armed with deadly weapons, on which he slept at night, to be ready at a moment's warning, not knowing but in dead of night, his house might be fired, and his family butchered before his eyes, by cut-throat assassins! The never-to be-forgotten 14th of September, was ushered in, and as it was God's holy day, our people assembled in their tent, the usual place of worship, and anticipated a day of quiet, after such stirring scenes, through which they had passed, that had entirely broken up religious meetings. When the services were nearly finished for the forenoon, Dr. Still, [43] of the South Kansas District, came in hot haste and told the people that "the prairies near the Wakarusa were swarming with armed men." Who wonders that prayers went up to the Great Deliverer for help, in this extremity? For, far as human view could scan, none but Daniel's God could deliver, as Lawrence was entirely evacuated by our brave troops, who had gone too far to be recalled, and not 200 fighting men could be rallied to face 3000 incarnate fiends, spurred on by the whiskey-demon to burn every

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house in this devoted town, and to destroy the whole Abolition crew! Even children "over six months must be murdered," as the Rev. Mr. Bird, a Congregationalist minister, a prisoner in their camp, affirms they told him was agreed upon, as their blood would be tainted with abolitionism! What good old Quaker, of the Democratic stamp, on the shores of old Champlain, would not fight under such circumstances, that their pure-minded wives and daughters should not be robbed of the brightest jewel in their coronet, and their sons slain in cold blood? Ah! methinks old broad-brim, of the straightest jacket, would exclaim in such an hour, to such a ruffian-horde, "if thou so greatly desirest to smell powder, thou shalt surely be gratified to the full!"-Lawrence at that time, was the rendezvous of clergymen, of every order in the Territory, who had fled from their several charges here for protection, and every minister who could procure a rifle was armed with one. Said my good husband, scarcely recovered from fever, "never did I feel like fighting, until I saw that army coming upon us." He stood on the brow of the hill, just back of our dwelling, when the advanced guard of the Missourians, two hundred strong, and our brave boys, just sixty in number, came in collision, and with heart uplifted, prayed to the God of Heaven, to smite our enemies.

Never until that awful hour, did I see man meet his fellow man in mortal combat. Whilst fleeing from our house, as I did three times in twenty-four hours, with my child in my arms, to prevent being shot by cannon balls, I was in full view of the battle. 'Twos a sight sublime, to witness the bravery of our boys, in pouring volley after volley of Sharpe's rifles in their ranks, while they confusedly huddled together, to prevent being hit, cowards to the last, as they have always proved themselves to be. Heaven miraculously, it has seemed to us, interposed, and we were saved that time.

One item we wish to lay before your readers, Mr. Editor, with regard to the suffering and destitution of the people in the Territory this Winter. Our position has brought us into close proximity with such an amount of suffering as we cannot describe with pen. Families suffering in poor floorless cabins, for food and clothing. What has been distributed has gladdened many a heart-but where one garment has been given away to cover shivering limbs, one hundred more is needed to supply the demand. Where one sack of flour has been sent, one hundred are wanted to keep the people from suffering, if not from perishing for food.-Large sums of money sent to Kansas for the needy, have never been received by them. The fault rests

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somewhere, and the poor must suffer in consequence. O that our friends in the East would select some one known to have the fear of God and the day of retribution, before his eyes, and confide to him some of the funds, or send direct to the individuals, whom you wish to help, if money, a "check" on any good Western Bank, if clothing, put the name of the individual, who is to receive them, or to the care of some man known to be reliable, on the box, or barrel, and direct to the care of W. F. Arny, Chicago, that every poor soul may receive what is sent them by their friends.

Yours, respectfully,

JULIA LOUISA LOVEJOY.

LAWRENCE, K. T., Jan. 22, 1857.

MESSRS. EDITORS [44] ; -You have doubtless ere this (with eyes almost protruding from their sockets with wonder and astonishment) read our Governor's late message, [45] that has set the slave-ocrats at Lecompton, and the fire-eaters from Missouri, attending that famous convocation, the bogus Legislature, now in session at that place, to raving and cursing like madmen; and if their threats are carried into execution, Kansas will soon be minus of a Governor, and His Excellency might well envy the fate of poor "Kirwan," of papal notoriety, who has, by the Holy Father, been thoroughly and throughout cursed with "bell, book and candle," in soul and in body, in life, and doomed to the fires of purgatory evermore! We deprecate his fate, but have little doubt notwithstanding, that he will yet live to write the "history of Kansas and border-ruffianism run mad!" Could you, friend Fogg, for a few moments steal away from your quiet sanctum, and find yourself in our little city, you might imagine yourself at once jostled by the crowds in Broadway, N. Y., or on one of the quays of Boston. Such crowds are thronging the streets, and such briskness in business-matters, on every hand; or like Don Quixote, rub your eyes and wonder how long you had been napping. Hear the hammer of the auctioneer, whilst with stentorian lungs he crieth lustily, those ominous words, on which, perchance, hangs the destiny of some gaping wight, who, with distended jaws and arms ensconced to the elbows, in those huge pockets, eyes the auctioneer, as ever and anon recur those fatal words, that, like a death-knell to his hopes, fall upon his ear, "Going, going, GONE!" What on airth, cries Mrs. Partington, have them Lawrence folks to vendue

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off, when they are freezing and starving? Why, madam, we have all kinds of furniture direct from St. Louis, of the most expensive manufacture, of mahogany and black walnut, crockery and house-furnishing goods of almost any kind you want; for, know you, though there is an unparalleled state of suffering with the unsupplied poor, speculators are here with their money this winter, from different parts of the Union, and such a mania for "city stock" in the different localities in this Territory, is seldom seen, save in the "Great West," where cities spring up by magic. Lots here are four times the value they were a few weeks since. A friend sold four "shares" of Manhattan "stock" for forty dollars; the same "shares" are now worth four hundred dollars! In Wyandot, Quindaro, Ham [p ]den, Columbus and some other places, speculators are clearing their thousands, and still property is rapidly rising.-Claims in the vicinity of Lawrence are held very high, some as high as $5000, and speculators foreseeing the unprecedented tide of emigration that will set in upon Kansas, when Spring opens, have got ahead, and almost daily arrivals show the increase of population, and still there is room!

Did those sturdy, hard-working farmers, that are the pride and glory of the old Granite State, know the advantages of a farm in Kansas, 10,000 would be missing at the polls next March, and would be en route for this inviting country. Ah! Sirs; if we were not already here, we would get aboard the first steamer, (even though we could procure no other than a deck-passage, and be under the necessity of travelling incognito, Reeder-like [46] that leaves the wharves of St. Louis bound for Kansas! What, though we have lived for months in a cabin, without floors or windows, where the rain has stood in pools on the bed. What harm has accrued, though the snakes, as large as an old-fashioned chair post have been so very friendly as to crawl through the interstices of our cabin, to see what we Yankees were about-a rap on the head has soon rendered them perfectly harmless, and taught them never again, un invited, to intrude upon strangers. What though a huge rattlesnake was found, when the cover was removed, snugly coiled up under my bed, where I had slept sweetly a few hours before, and still another, with beautiful vest, peering with sparkling eyes from a cupboard, suspended over my bed, where my babe lay sleeping, not

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dreaming he was so noiselessly watched by such an intruder, who had unseen glided to his hiding-place.

Do we not still retain our identity, tho' we have lived on "cornbread and bacon," until the very sight of a four-legged rooter would almost give us "spasms"? One of these days, we design to give the little folks in New Hampshire some wonderful stories of hair-breadth escapes from a wildcat, fearful, and yet ludicrous, in which we were concerned. If they will wait patiently, the story shall be forth-coming.

We would like, with trumpet-voice, to tell the ladies of Acworth and Manchester, N. H., in behalf of the suffering poor, whose wants can now be supplied from their liberality, how glad the arrival of boxes of clothing from those places have made our hearts.

When Mr. Arney[47] left here to return East, he found that scores who had applied for clothing, and there was none for them, must suffer unless help came from some source.-On his way down the Missouri river, he found boxes lodged on account of navigation closing up. These boxes, with commendable zeal, he has found means to send here, and last night Mr. Lovejoy, who devotes himself without charge, almost entirely to relieving the poor, came home from town, where the goods are deposited, and with glistening eye drew from his pocket papers he found in the boxes-two in the Manchester boxes from Mrs. Chapin, President of the M. K. A. S. A thousand blessings on your head, my dear Mrs. Chapin, and those noble ladies who pulled their very bonnets from their heads, as good, if not indeed quite, as new! We have not seen them, but our husband being judge, they are very nice and very beautiful. Only think, Mr. Editor, a whole box of bonnets from Manchester! Now look at that big box of boots and shoes from the same place. Now dive into that long-legged boot, and see what you will fish up! Try again; there is another and still another pair of those nice socks, and yarn enough to darn them when they come to mending. And the shoes are stuffed with the same timely articles! We don't wonder you involuntarily ejaculate, "Heaven bless the kind donors!" How many frost-bitten feet will now be made comfortable! You may think us unpardonably foolish, Sir, but anything that comes from our own State is doubly dear to us, and how earnestly we craved one of those New Hampshire bonnets we dare not tell here. Mr. L., who now has charge of these goods, has an invariable rule, "the greatest sufferers first supplied." Who, think you, sir,

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sends the most and best goods to Kansas to supply the needy? The stingy yankees! Who is aiding Kansas in every respect more than all others put together? The stingy yankees ! Ah, sir, we glory in yankeeism and yankee "isms." Boxes of goods have been opened in our presence, the worth of the contents of which would not pay the freight, but they were not sent by stingy yankees. We have now an overcoat sent to our "care," for one of the "heroes" in the Territory, which, by the way, is a great curiosity, and were it not for robbing the poor man, we would vote that it should be sacredly preserved for the benefit of posterity, and its history enrolled amongst the "archives" of the Territory. We have concluded it could not have been made in the year one, for the flood must have swept off every vestige that pertained to the giant race, but are very sure it was made before we had a being! Here comes out knitting work, just begun, needles and all-here a little Misses' sack, half done, with the needle sticking in, just where busy fingers dropped the work into the box-here a hank of thread and there a roil of patches, put in by some careful hand.

More anon,

JULIA LOUISA LOVEJOY.

LAWRENCE, K. T., Feb. 9, 1857.

MESSRS. EDITORS [48] -Our friends in New England need have no farther apprehensions with regard to the course heretofore pursued by Gov. Geary; if it has seemed to favor the "law and order" alias blood and murder party-the present state of things in Lecompton is somewhat as we had long ago anticipated, though we had not supposed the subterranean fires, that for months had been smothered by appearances, would burst out in a volcanic eruption, quite so soon! We have just learned, by a gentleman direct from Lecompton, that the Governor is in a sad fix, though he still retains his courage (backed, as he is, by a corps of the regular troops from Leavenworth,) for which he has gained celebrity, both here and in San Francisco.

He must be ill at ease, and truly needs the sympathies of the entire North, when he cannot trust his faithful house-servant, but is under the necessity of cooking his own food, lest his wench should be bribed to poison his favorite dishes! Now is not this a lamentable state of things-and would it be at all wonderful if this should serve as a spur to induce him to over-leap the barriers of bachelor-

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ism, and alight somewhere within a certain radius, where he may no longer be considered invulnerable to Cupid's dart, tho' a little over forty years of age? Our informant tells us that he keeps aloof from the members of the so-called Legislature, and when a company of them entered his room, a few days since, to demand of him reasons for certain acts of his, in the Gubernatorial line, he ordered them from his presence!-'Twould not be at all strange if the next mail carried to the readers of the Democrat the news of his assassination, as it is boldly threatened!

[J. H.] Kagi, the "reporter" of the Kansas Tribune, at Topeka, wrote an offensive article for that paper last week, that savored too much of personality, in the opinion of Judge [Rush] Elmore, whom it concerned, and as both stood on the steps of the Court House [at Tecumseh], the Judge asked him if "he was the author of the article alluded to." K. answered in the affirmative, when Brookslike, down came the cane of the Judge, unceremoniously, on his pate, but before he had time to repeat the blow, a by-stander handed K. a pistol, when he fired, hitting the Judge in the hip, maiming him for life-the Judge drew his revolver, and aimed it at K.'s heart, but the ball struck an account-book in his overcoat, directly over his heart, and thereby saved his life! The Judge fired three or four times at his victim, but not one ball took effect!

Don't you think, Messrs. Editors, ours is an enviable position, with such exemplary Judges to decide in matters of Right and Wrong in Kansas? One thing is clear as a sun beam at noon-day, -Justice with regard to the peaceable settlers in Kansas, who have been so strangely villified, will not much longer slumber. Our day of triumph is not far distant! Mark that!

The weather here last week was as pleasant as September in New Hampshire; thunder showers for two days in succession.-The appearance now is, that Spring has indeed come. The weather for two months has been intensely cold, with but little snow. Much rain has fallen lately, which has caused such a freshet as to intercept the mails, consequently news from the East will be very old before it arrives here! Applications for clothing, only to be denied, as we have none, are constantly recurring-sometimes a shapeless "mass of rags" will stand erect in our door-way, with the form and` visage of humanity, imploring help-at other times, shrinking modesty is compelled to make public "destitution and want," which it had for months vainly endeavored to conceal from prying eyes! A feeble old

Governor's mansion

THE GOVERNOR'S MANSION AT LECOMPTON

The home of Gov. John W. Geary during his brief residence in Lecompton, 1856-1857. It was sketched by a representative of Harper's Weekly, of New York, and was published in the issue of June 6, 1857. Of the place, Harper's remarked: "Rough and plain as it looks, it is said to have been for some time the most comfortable residence at Lecompton. It contains six rooms -- three on the ground floor , a library, a dining-room, and an office -- and two chambers and a store-room above."

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lady, with a diseased limb, swollen to twice its natural size, called for help a few days since. Her house had been robbed by the ruffians, of almost her entire stock of bedding, and she so dreaded to call for help, she had crept between the feather-bed and straw ticking, during the winter, to keep from freezing, until her physician told her she must do so no more, as her limb would never get well in that condition! We had none to give her, but we spoke to a Christian lady to lend her some bedding, until we could get some from the East.

We sometimes think our friends are hardly aware of the great destruction of property here by ruffian-hands, and how many families, who would otherwise have a competence, are thus made wretched. We had hoped our own losses from the same source, would, in these times of need, be made up by some benevolent hearts, but as yet, we have hoped in Vain!

We would say to our Christian friends in New Hampshire, that there is some faith, love and zeal for God in Kansas-we are greatly embarrassed in having no suitable place for worship during the winter-our tent, that answered Very well in warm weather, is wholly unfit for present use. There are two places of worship, costing several thousand each, that will be completed early in the Spring, belonging to the Congregationalists and Unitarians; built by contributions from the East. Will not some benevolent heart, that beats in unison with others of like character, amongst the Granite Hills, be moved to contribute their mite to help rear a house for God, on these lovely plains, for the use of the M. E. church?-Who will respond? Who wants a hand in building the first M. E. church in Lawrence, K. T. We wait the echo: not the price of blood, or unrequited labor, ask we, but the free-will offering of a free people.

Respectfully,

JULIA LOUISA LOVEJOY.

P. S. The Kansas River has broken up, and the ice is running to-day at a fearful rate-of course the Missouri River is in the same condition, and the boats will soon commence their regular trips. Large companies of emigrants are waiting at different points, we are told, to enter the Territory. We would say to all who contemplate coming to Kansas, to take the boat at Alton, Ill., or St. Louis, and get a ticket, for ten or twelve dollars, through to Leavenworth, (unless a boat runs on the Kansas River, which they can easily ascertain) not stopping at Kansas City, Wyandot, Quindaro,

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or any other place; they can purchase a team at Leavenworth, a covered wagon, if they bring their families in which they can eat and sleep, and every Yankee woman, I'll venture, can make her own coffee, fry her ham, and bake her cakes by the way-side, as we had to do for long and weary days in succession, with a dying child, and ourselves worn down with fatigue, and lone watching, and our kind protector far, far away, and a drunken thieving teamster in his stead! Ah, me! those days of crushing grief! May none others ever know the like !

From Leavenworth, each one can take what direction he pleases, to seek a location. There are "claims" in plenty, untaken, a few miles from the different towns in the Territory. Do be early here, or you will be pushed farther back. We are receiving letters, almost every mail, from different parts of the Union, from individuals who wish us to help them in securing a location in Kansas.

LAWRENCE, K. T., March 19, 1857.

DEAR PARENTS [49] AND ALL THE REST: I have been working with "might and main" since day-light this morning to try to get a leisure moment and now as my "men" boarders have gone on to their ponies and gone out to view the country, I seize a moment, in the greatest haste to write you, ere they return to supper. Mr. L [ovejoy]. started for Manhattan Monday morning with Dr. [Whitehorn] and Juliette, who has been here three or four weeks on a visit. I have looked for a letter from some of you, and have expected Colby every week till we received Matilda's letter, which we did the day after Mr. Lovejoy left for Manhattan. I have been thronged with people all winter and spring-emigrants are pouring in by the hundreds, and among them is Dr. Frye, N. Leavitt, and Mr. Alexander, of Grantham-we have kept all from N. H. free from receiving pay-they have gone to get claims, and I thought for a few days I would have a "resting spell" when yesterday in come a flock from Chicago, and among the number is a rich Methodist preacher came to invest his thousands here, and a Dr. Evans, who is a Methodist, and the preacher told me, he is worth half a million; came here to lay out a town. How sorry we are that some of you did not come here before people rushed in so, even if you had left your farms untilled for a year, as you would have gained in the end. Now for a family "chat" as I have long wished to have; What follows is just for your eye, father and mother, and nobody's else-first, we are trying to do right to God and man-second, we

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are well all of us in body, and in temporal matters, if our plans succeed we shall have enough for ourselves and something to do with-our claim in Manhattan joins the City, and must be worth $5,000; forty acres of this will be worth $1,000 which we give a German Methodist, to hold the whole for us, and carry it on, one or two years-we find team, and all even to his bed, and things to keep house with, to keep him there; he has agreed to pre-empt it, in his own name, we paying the money to enter it and deed back 120 acres to us, and unless he backslides, and is guilty of perjury, he will do so- We have 6 shares in M[anhattan]. City stock, worth $600 and the Association voted me one share, worth $100- Mr. L[ovejoy]. has sold four for four hundred doll[ar]s- we have paid for 80 acres, of a Methodist brothers claim, 8 miles from here- Charles bought 8 lots in Lawrence, last winter, and cleared $400, and if he had kept them until now he might have cleared 800- with this money, Mr. L. bought a "claim" in Palmyra, 8 miles from here, for $800, to pre-empt ourselves, for Charles, who had lost two claims, and not a small sum, expended on one, by not being of age- forty acres of splendid timber on this at P [almyra] and Mr. L. thinks is the loveliest spot he has seen yet; only one claim between that, and a town laid out which must be a large place, as they have located the [Baker] University there, and property has run up enormously since we bought- it is worth today $3,000. Charles is there, keeping old "bath" and Mr. L. goes back and forth to hold it for him a good house on it, and quite a field, broke and sails [rails] out-- I do want C. [to] find him a wife, that he can love to keep house for him but he is difficult to suit-thought once he had made up his mind at Manhattan but No; he says he never loved but one, and that is the faithless Angenette. Charles is one of the keenest speculators, you ever saw, and trade he will, as much as [his] uncle Dan, and we cannot keep him from it- he is a noble young man- Irving makes me more work than all three of my other children ever did. The moment he is dressed, in the morning, he is ready to dive into mischief- he is all Lovejoy, as handsome as a dollar, eyes sparkling black and bright as a button. I weaned him last week. Juliette, has a husband that is making a "pet" of her in every sense- she has all the money she wants to spend, we think foolishly, for fine things unnecessarily and we talk to the Dr. for indulging her whims so, but it does no good. "Why, 'tis my little pet" he will answer, and he thinks it is not an easy matter for her to do wrong- she is fleshy and looks like a

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doll, and he is not willing that she should do but little work. She never was permitted to wear such fine garments, till she went from home. He bought her a covered buggy when here and she must have her pony, to ride with him, and a six dollar ladies bridle and the nicest saddle that could be found, but his money comes easily. He has a claim joining ours at M[anhattan]. "a house and a lot" in the City, and $500 in loose cash, when here, besides a "lot" of uncollected debts, and most all the practice in the surrounding country- he is a skillful surgeon- took off a man's foot, just before he came down here, took him but a few minutes and charged him 40 dollars, that is the way with Drs in this country. He is now 30 and she 17- We have one lot here cost us $300 now worth 500; another, near the levee here, not prized and two where our house stands, which with the buildings we value at $1500 or 2000 and also a "fraction" timber lot, of 3 acres, joining Lawrence for which we gave a yoke of cattle and 30 doll[ar]s some time ago, now tis very valuable, and no doubt it will be jumped and we shall lose it unless we sell it immediately. Our losses have been 5 or 600 and not made up, as we thought, that the stolen things would be from the East. Now, I have told the simple "talk" that I knew you would want to know. I wish you were all here. Tis as warm as June in N. H. today. Do write the day you get this. Don't neglect us so. Good bye; I must be up and ready for the men.

Love to all,

JULIA.

LAWRENCE, K. T., April 29, 1857.

MESSRS. EDITORS [50] :-It has been so long since we talked to the Democrat, we were thinking to-day that our friends might imagine some evil had befallen us, to cause this silence, when it has originated from a different source altogether. Those who have read the "Herald of Freedom," can have some idea how Lawrence has been over-run by the thousands, that have swarmed the streets for weeks past-every house being literally full, and some densely packed. And, as usual, with such a rush, sickness has come along too, and we are told, small-pox, measles, and scarlet fever, are now in Lawrence. Instead of writing, for weeks past, we have occupied a position that a salamander might enjoy as his native element, if fables were a reality, over the cooking stove, preparing some eatables for the hungry emigrant, in a room heated to but stop!

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we did not look once to the thermometer, but sped away, day after day, to our appointed task, nor stopped to think how tired we were, until the last object of solicitude was stowed away for the night.

And then, Sirs, we believe the sin would have been pardoned, could you have slyly peeped through the key-hole of your sanctum, and enjoyed a hearty laugh at their expense; for, who could gaze on such a motley group, in such a "fix," and not have their risibles excited to the highest pitch? A writer, whose descriptive powers were of the highest order, would hardly do justice to the subject. In one corner might be seen two gentlemen who belonged to "upper tendom," who are here to invest their thousands in laying out towns, if their plans succeed; the great-hearted and good Dr. E., of Chicago, worth his half million, can take a couch just as lowly as the poor New Hampshire boy, in the other corner, who is snoring away as lustily as if no midnight dreams of assassins ever disturbed his repose. One entire side of the room is covered with sleepers, and now, as the last man has sunk into the arms of Morpheus, a little caution may be necessary, if you wish to make an inspection, lest you tread on toes, as some, unfortunately for them, find the mattress will not stretch to accommodate their elongated limbs. For instance, your friend Bailey of Bradford, N. H., whom we gladly hail as a valuable acquisition to the cause of freedom in Kansas, and may his "gigantic shadow not soon be less!" Among our guests we could number eight from the dear old Granite State. A Mr. Little of Hollies, over sixty years of age, in easy circumstances at home, said "he thought he had done work enough to see a little of the world in his old age. He had not been here but [copy torn] wrote the following [copy torn], who took care at [copy torn] of few words, and highly [copy torn] the country) -"John, if you are [copy torn] and anxious to come to Kansas, I will sell out, and help all I can to come to the best country in the world." The old gentleman has joined a colony who have taken "claims," and are locating a town (near Council City, about twenty-five miles from Lawrence) that they have named "Young America!" [51] Now don't laugh; for what does a name signify? Mr. Little so renewed his age in coming to Kansas, and getting a farm under such novel circumstances, that he actually got a night's start of the whole party, lest some of them would get the best claim, so that they lost sight

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of him. May Kansas be blessed with many more such energetic, judicious men. Have you not rejoiced with us at the noble stand St. Louis has recently taken? [52] We fearlessly predict that Missouri will soon follow in her footsteps, and in less than five years slavery will there be known as a thing that once cursed the people. Did we not tell you, months since, that our time of triumph would soon come? Mr. Stanton, as acting Governor until Walker arrives, gave us a speech last Friday night, in which he alluded to the "bogus laws," and I was told by one who was present, that "he said they must be enforced even though at the point of the bowie-knife." He was answered, "Then we shall use Sharpe's rifles." We have no fears with regard to any more war, and Kansas will be free; of this we have no doubt.

For the gratification of the Methodist preachers in New Hampshire, who are disposed to complain of "hard fare," in their comfortable parsonages, we would like to give a short "sketch" of one who was once of their number, who has just returned from a tour of three weeks to Nebraska City, N. T., where his Annual Conference has just been held. During his journey, sick and weary, he was obliged to stretch his aching limbs on the open prairie for the live-long night, one of the coldest of the season-no blanket to cover him-no food for himself or faithful beast-his carpet-bag for his pillow, and the ague defying him to proceed farther at his peril. On he went, and at the conclusion of the Conference, heard his appointment read off, to a place twenty-four miles from the field of labor where he has spent two years-no comfortable parsonage awaiting his arrival-not even a shelter of any kind for himself and family-nothing but the promise of God, and souls "hungry for the bread of life." And the whole salary of this man, for two years, has but little exceeded (all told) some of the surprise visits made by the loving people of New Hampshire and elsewhere, to their good pastors. O, that some of the "broken fragments" of the well-filled tables, might roll in this direction and feed some of these hungry Missionaries and their families. I must stop, as my house begins to be thronged again, and the question is again and again asked, "Can you board me? Do you take boarders?"

In haste,

JULIA LOUISA LOVEJOY.

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LAWRENCE, K. T., May 5, 1857.

MESSRS. EDITORS [53] -Had you been at the parsonage this morning, at the eastern declivity of "Mt. Oread," you might have imagined that "Santa Claus," or some other good spirit, had found a way of making their ingress to the Missionaries dwelling, whether down the chimney, or in some less questionable way, we will leave you to determine; the gifts were there in rich profusion, to gladden the recipients, and that is enough. And tho' we did not once see the wily old fellow, peering grinningly into the suspended stocking, as we used to imagine in our younger days he did, when he let fall his Christmas presents, we did see the invalid pastor, as one article after another was taken from the well filled barrel, shed tears, and we could not well suppress a kindred feeling. If good wishes and heaven-directed petitions are not unanswered, Manchester ladies, with their noble-hearted leader, Mrs. Chapin, (whose name is fragrant with good deeds for the needy in Kansas,) will not go unblest. We will not attempt to enumerate the thankfully received articles, that were severally such a "nice fit"; but a little bonnet and dress; made us feel, as none but a bereaved mother can feel; it being designed for a precious form that two years from the very day and hour we received it, we had laid away with sorrowing hearts in her lowly bed; but she wears a better robe and "starry crown."

We almost felt a spirit of coveting one of the boxes of bonnets that were sent from Manchester last winter, because they came from our own dear native State; but Sirs, instead of one, we received two in this barrel for us, one for summer and one for winter, and barring a few "extras," we could not have suited ourselves better. This is the second time we have been affected by the personal kindness of friends in New Hampshire. We have supposed that other things have been sent us, but not being in a box or barrel directed to us, they have lodged somewhere else. A gentleman from your goodly city called yesterday with a paper in his hand, found early that morning, in a ravine near town, signed by Mrs. Richard Bradley, of Concord, N. H. directed to Mrs. C. H. Lovejoy, of Lawrence, K. T., and also a card, saying that she had forwarded me a dress, and also that the ladies of Concord had forwarded two hogsheads of clothing to the needy in Kansas. We soon learned how matters stood. The two hogsheads came safely to hand, but being directed to Rev. E. Nute, we knew nothing of the matter; and he, for some cause, left them out doors at the Unitarian Church, over night, and

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they were taken by thieves into the ravine, the one in which my dress was, broken open and one half the contents stolen, my dress among the rest, and the remainder was strewed about. Will not our dear friends at home follow our directions, and if they wish to send anything to anybody in Kansas, put the name and locality of the individual you wish to serve, on the box or barrel or whatever you send? We shall send to the kind-hearted Mrs. Bradley, for a fac-simile of the pattern sent, and if we catch anybody promenading the streets with our dress on, we shall be likely to make some inquiries into the matter. In the interim, Mrs. B. will accept our warmest thanks, if we have lost her present.

Had you been here with your old friend Bailey to-day, you might have been treated to a nice dish of baked beans, that were found between the folds of cloth, and in every unoccupied place in the Manchester barrel; not ready for the table of course, but nice and just right. May the gardens in Manchester never be trespassed upon by the frost king, until this wholesome esculent shall be beyond his reach. Emigration in both directions is active, coming and going back, because they find such poor fare in Kansas. Poor souls! What a pity it is that their good mothers did not make them a cake of sufficient dimensions, like Harry's of spelling book celebrity, to last them the entire journey that they might not be under the sad necessity of living on "corn bread" in the cabin of the squatter, who, with his half-starved family, has been glad, some of the time, to get a little meal from pounded corn, to live upon.

Our house has presented a spectacle, most of the time for weeks past, that would have greatly amused our friends, could the several scenes be faithfully daguerreotyped, in their different phases; especially at night, when every weary soul was fully intent on seeking the "best quarters" on the softest side of the softest board, "right side up with care."-One young lady, who laid her weary limbs as close to our own bed as possible, gave in her solemn "affidavit," in the morning, that somebody had trespassed on the "wee bit" of space allotted to her during the night; but on inquiry, we learned that it was only a poor invalid from New Hampshire, who in his haste to make his exodus from the heated room into the fresh air, had unceremoniously trodden upon her head rather heavily. On the whole, we think, in many respects, we have had a "model" family, made up as it has been of such a variety from every point of the compass. Please say to our friends, that our appointment the present year

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is "Oskaloosa," a rapidly rising town, 24 miles from Lawrence, but our address will be still the same, for the year, "Lawrence," as heretofore.

Yours Respectfully,

JULIA LOUISA LOVEJOY.

PALMYRA, K. T., May 30, 1857.

MESSRS. EDITORS [54]:-Such is the economy of Methodism, and the system of itinerancy, that we have been compelled from the force of circumstances, to vacate temporarily our home in Lawrence, for one with our son, on his "claim" in this town, ten miles from Lawrence-for be it known to our good brethren within the bounds of the New Hampshire Conference, in their comfortable parsonages, there is but one, as far as we are informed, for the preacher, in this whole Territory, (that is near the Missouri river, at a place called Columbus City [55] and he must throw him up a cabin to shelter his family, or rent one at an enormous price, houses are in such demand-so here we are, and the Missionary, (who is literally, and we have long feared irrecoverably broken down, by exposure and hard labor, during two years of suffering in Kansas, and contending with ague and fever, for long weary months) is thirty-four miles from us, going from cabin to cabin, and like his Master "no certain dwelling place," and for the year to come, unless confined to his room by sickness, will only be an occasional visitor to his family.

Such is "Kansas life," but our spirits do not flag, and we are full of hope for the future; neither do we regret our own personal suffering in the past, for Kansas will be saved to God and freedom, and generations yet to come may rise up even on these lovely plains, to call us "blessed," for our sacrifices in wresting this fair land from the "mildew of slavery," and, perchance, find an indefinable emotion, welling up from the depths of the soul, akin to the one that almost overpowered us, a few days since, as we leaned over the railing that encircles the grave of the lamented Barber, [56] in Lawrence cemetery, and walked from "grave to grave" in this "city of the dead," where our own heart lies buried, for there sleeps the "darling of our bosom."-Heaven give us grace to feel "thy will be done."

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Our Eastern friends could hardly believe that this grave-yard is now quite as full in two-years as some thickly-populated villages in New England, in perhaps twenty or thirty years. We undertook to count the graves, all of which are without any stone or wood, with the initials even of the individuals marked thereon, with but two or three exceptions; but our feelings were so wrought upon, we desisted and prostrated ourselves on the grave of our loved one, and thought how many mothers in New England had sons buried there who left home in all the buoyancy of hope, and in a few short months were stricken down by the fell "destroyer," and those mothers could not stand by their dying couch and wipe the "dew of death" from their brow-neither could they drop the tear over their grave, or even know the spot that covers their precious dust-but there is one sorrowing heart, that for their sakes, has performed this sad office for them with tears and groans, heard only by the Invisible.

You are aware that Palmyra is the spot where "Baker University" is to be located, and a more lovely site, we think, cannot be found. Timber is more plenty here than in any part of the Territory, we have seen, save on the "Indian Reservation," and what is dissimilar to any other place we have seen in Kansas, the timber lies high on real hills, not bluffs, as in other places, or fringing the margin of rivers and creeks, as elsewhere. This claim has sixty acres of timber and one hundred of rich bottom land. Our son paid $600 for it a long time since, and would not take twice that sum. The claim adjoining has ninety acres of timber, and was bought by a man from Illinois, a few weeks since, for $600, so our friends will perceive property is held in some estimation in this region. Two shares were sold in "Palmyra Town Association," last Thursday, for $500.

Shall we describe our cabin, for the gratification of the ladies in New Hampshire?-Behold, then, ye fastidious, and judge whether "contentment" dwells alone in a princely dome! See ye that little unpretending structure, built of logs, sixteen by twelve, perched on yon hill, almost embosomed in deep green foliage, nearly encircled by the arms of that young and vigorous forest? that is our home. Now, from the northwest corner of our cabin, for a stand-point, feast your eyes on the enchanting panorama spread out at your feet, and as far away in the distance as vision can stretch on every hand. This field of three acres, so nicely fenced in, is our garden!Just saunter along with us, and see our peach, apple and pear trees,

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brought from Illinois.-You will find cherry trees, grape-vines and currant bushes, with a "variety" of vegetables, that have been suffering for want of rain until to-day, when the full clouds have been emptying their contents upon the earth "shower upon shower," accompanied by [ter]rific thunder, and such lightning as we [never] saw till we came to Kansas. That [field lying] beyond the garden, partly enclosed, [contains] one hundred acres, and is Charlie's [corn field]-he has about ten acres, ploughed [and] planted, and intends to have at least [twenty] five acres in corn. Please walk in, and [see] the interior of our cabin, that is divided and subdivided by curtains, to make lodging apartments, sitting room and kitchen. That mammoth-fire-place, that yawns like a cavern's mouth, has been of essential service to the lonely inmate, during the to him long tedious term of his keeping "bachelor's hall," who, by the way, has become quite an adept in the sublime mysteries of making cornbread, though for a while 'twas to him a puzzle, as difficult to solve as a problem in Euclid, how "to make it hold together" after the "thing" was baked. Our shelves, for dishes, you see, are loose boards, laid on huge pins, driven into the logs-a stove, table, and a few chairs, and our kitchen "fixtures" are complete. Our chimney-top affords ample room for the hens to roost, and is thus appreciated nightly as a safe retreat from the destroyer! We have music from the birds and chickens, and are we not happy?

You will understand, our projected University was so named, in honor of our beloved Superintendent, who was the first Methodist Bishop who attended the first session of the Kansas and Nebraska Conference-may the child ever reflect honor on the revered father. The destruction of human life is of very little account here; the recital of murders, for they can be called nothing less, is truly sickening, for very small matters-horse-stealing-jumping claims, an altercation about some matter, with a stage-driver have frequently imbued murderous hands in their brother's blood. We have lately lost our only horse, worth 150. (save an Indian pony) which is the second one stolen, or strayed, besides having one die; and had one wood-lot jumped (by a heartless fellow) for which we paid $100. But let us trudge our weary way on foot, limping to the grave, all our days, or warm our shivering limbs by another's fire, rather than the thief be shot-for what is the value of property, compared to ushering a poor wretch, with all his sins unrepented of, on his guilty bead, into the presence of his Maker? We would tender our thanks to the little Misses of South New-

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market N. H., for the valise filled with "articles of clothing" to be distributed amongst needy children, brought by T. L. Tullock, Esq., of Portsmouth, N. H. Each garment was made by their own hands, and the sewing, we assure you, sir, would put to the blush many an older Miss! We design to form a Sabbath School in this place, and fix out needy girls, who will attend, with this clothing, as far as it will go, and perhaps hereafter, those very little girls in South Newmarket, having grown to womanhood, will on these lovely plains, meet those benefitted by their liberality, and from their lips receive oral thanks. We opine, that among the list of names attached, are those of the daughters of Mr. Pike, Representative to Congress; but of this fact we have not been advised. The weather is cold, and Spring unusually backward. Provisions are very high, and nothing but money will buy them, and as far as our own personal opinion will go, we must say, "times look dark, about getting bread for all, until corn can grow." Emigrants like the "locusts of Egypt" have come in such "swarms," that they have swept all before them-i. e. in the narrow circle, where we move daily. Flour in Lawrence is now $12, per. barrel, potatoes 3.50 per. bushel, ham 17 cts. per. pound, beans, white 4.00 per. bush., butter, 35 cts. per. pound. So you see those who have little money, must fare hard. Board is four, five and up to seven dollars per. week, in private families, and (hire washing done elsewhere) in hotels, 1.50 per. day.

Please say to our friends, that our communications, are still to be directed to Lawrence, for there is no Post Office nearer, to which we can have access, and we do not grudge the pains in going ten miles to the Post Office, if by that means, we can hear from friends, which is "like cold water to a thirsty soul," in this distant land.

In haste,

JULIA LOUISA LOVEJOY.

[PALMYRA, K. T., June 1, 1857.]

MR. EDITOR [57] :-. . . How full of change is life! More than two years ago, we found ourselves suddenly removed from a dear little cottage nestled on the green hills of New England, to a floorless, windowless cabin, on a vast expanse, where but one other of like stamp with our own appeared, to break the monotony of the view, as far as vision could stretch on either hand. There the untaught savage, almost in a state of nudity, painted and decorated in the most hideous style, shocked us with his repeated intrusions,

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until we learned not to fear his approach; there the rattlesnake and copperhead, with various others of the serpent species, intruded upon the sanctity of "our home." In that lone spot, almost on the "limits" of civilized life, the angel of mercy laid a beautiful boy in our cradle, to repair the breach made by the destroyer in the "household band."

But time passes on, and we find another home, built by our hands. Satan, in the garb of border ruffianism, invades our "beautiful country," and threatens a total extermination of all who will not bow down to the slave power. Men and women stand erect and cry, "we will not yield." Then are let loose the "dogs of war"; Atchison and Stringfellow, with others of like spirits, are lying in every hamlet, and their infuriated yell is heard along the creeks and rivers; bye and bye, a murderous crew, exceeded only in rage by the "spirits lost" in the infernal pit, urged on by the whiskey-demon, come as formally announced, to "wipe us out." The smoke of burning houses herald their approach; anon, their "bloody flag" heaves in view, surrounded by thousands whose blood-thirsty souls are clamoring for our death-in hot haste the foremost, scarcely able to restrain their impetuosity, as elated with the thought that now the hour so long desired had come, and the last "stronghold" of "abolitionism" must give way before the force of such overpowering numbers." The well-sped bullet soon checked their ardor, and told them that a more than "Spartan band" awaited their approach. In full view of the mortal combat we fled from our home, and twice again in 24 hours did we seek a refuge in a place of safety!

The wheel of time rolls on, and so does the wheel of itinerancy, until by our system we find a "new home"; and shall we be permitted to follow the example of Rev. G. E. Chapman, in the last Herald that has yet reached us, and attempt a description of our "surprise," for be assured we have them in this new Conference as well as on the elder ones, though of a different character. And you will not be "surprised" when we read of the many sweet "surprises" that our dear New England friends are making their good pastors, that we are tempted to wish some at least of the "broken fragments" might roll this way to "surprise" them whose entire salary barely exceeds those "donation surprises." Be it known to you who occupy comfortable parsonages in New England, that there is but one parsonage in this whole Territory, as far as we have learned, and the preacher must find a shelter for his family where lie can! Behold then, that invalid preacher, who has been con-

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tending for months with "ague and fever," listening almost breathlessly as his appointment is read off to a distant place where there is no house of any kind for the preacher to live in. An iron constitution is at last broken down by incessant toil and the inroads of disease! his family must go ten miles in an opposite direction, and he must find a place to lay his aching head where he can. And now follow the family as they wend their weary way beneath a scorching sun to another home. With oxen duly equipped, attached to a huge baggage wagon, the wife mounts to her elevated seat and begins her toilsome journey! A "wee bit" of space only is allotted to her comfort, for the household goods must occupy all but just room for her to sit, without changing her position in the least for rest-the "goods" towering over her head from a dizzy height, and threatening an avalanche if any of the fixings should give way, a basket of potatoes to rest her feet upon-in her arms, a child not quite two years old; in one hand an umbrella to screen her throbbing head from the oppressive heat of the sun, and in the other a bundle of sundries that could find no place secure from falling overboard, from the rocking to and fro of the ponderous vehicle. In due time the journey was completed, with no special misfortune save the premature death of Miss Biddy, who needed no coroner's inquest to prove that she died for want of room, hard pressed for quarters. On our arrival we, too, opened a "suspicious looking box," as did Bro. Chapman, and to our "surprise," found our nice loaf of "corn bread" all broken into fragments by the jolting of the wagon; nevertheless, it served as a choice bit to the hungry baby; and the gentle cow, that we had purposely left unmilked for the day, furnished a wholesome repast for our sharpened appetites. The preacher must not look for "stopping places" only as he turns his jaded beasts to graze, and lounge in his wagon the while.

For the "surprise" of some of the city preachers' wives, we should like to introduce them to our cabin on the day of our arrival; sick at heart, and almost murmuring at our hard lot, till faith and hope revived and triumphed. Two young men, who knew nothing of the "sublime mysteries" of housekeeping, had been keeping "bachelor lodge"; and to our "surprise," not a spot from the rude shelves of loose boards laid on pins, driven into the logs, to the nethermost nook, but what demanded instant attention from the newly arrived before the place was put to rights-no friendly stranger to lend us a helping hand or bathe our feverish temples, or prepare us a meal,

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that we might find a moment's respite. This, my dear sisters, is only an outline of "Kansas life" amongst Methodist preachers, and we should be agreeably "surprised" if any of you would give us a call at our little cabin, for the string of our wooden latch is literally out day and night; and although the door turns on big wooden hinges, in primitive style, it will creak as cordial a welcome to you as those with bell or knocker.

You are aware, Sir, that Palmyra is the seat of our projected University, named in honor of Bishop [O. C.] Baker, who was the first M. E. Bishop who attended the first session of Kansas and Nebraska Conference. A lovelier site cannot be found. It is to be built on an eminence, overlooking a vast expense on either hand as far away as the eye can stretch, and a more enchanting panorama, we think, the sun never shone upon.

There is more timber here than in any other part of the Territory we have yet seen, and it lies high on hills or ridges, and not along the margin of creeks and rivers, as elsewhere. Our Eastern friends may not be aware of the historic incidents connected with Palmyra, though they have doubtless read of the far-famed "Palmyra battle," [58] where the enemy by stratagem were so wonderfully defeated by a mere handful of brave boys. In this same battle the enemy took a number of Free State men that they had heretofore taken prisoners, and among the number was Rev. Mr. Moore, Methodist preacher from Iowa; and in the heat of the battle formed a rampart of their bodies, so that when our men fired the balls would pierce these prisoners FIRST, who were bound and could not escape! Among the heroes of the day in our ranks, was Bro. Moore's own son, who continued to "blaze away," little thinking his venerable father was exposed to every bullet from his rifle. By a singular providence not a hair of one of the prisoners was singed! They had previously taunted him, by drawing their hand significantly across his bald head and saying, "your scalp would not bring much," there was so little hair on his head.

Near the cabin is the grave of the man, who was killed by the falling of a stone from the Free State Hotel, at the time of its destruction. [59] The poor wretch, with his comrades, was so intent on tearing the building down, he did not perceive the stone that, as

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with an invisible hand, smote him to the earth, and in a moment he was before his Judge; he left a family of five children. Please say to our friends that our address will be still Lawrence, as heretofore.

Respectfully,

JULIA LOUISA LOVEJOY.

PALMYRA, K. T. July 1, 1857.

MESSRS. EDITORS [60] :-We thought it might be of some interest to our New England friends, to hear how "matters and things" are progressing at the "Peoria land sale," which has now been progressing seven days.61 Paoli, where the land is bid off, is about twenty-five miles from here, and as Mr. L. has been there from the commencement with the exception of two nights at home, we can give facts in the case. There are more than 1000 persons in attendance, and as is usual in such cases, any amount of drinking and gambling, and some robbing. One man lost $500 from a belt, around his body, by "pick-pockets." The gamblers are very shrewd in decoying their victims into their meshes. One man advanced in years, whom they had singled out to fleece, as they probably supposed him a green-horn at the business, they persuaded to try his luck at the gaming table, and so sure were they of their anticipated money they purposely let him win. When the game was concluded, the old man scooped up his money and was off for himself, and all their honeyed words had no effect on him afterwards; they found they had caught a Tartar instead of a green-horn!

The squatters have the first chance to bid on their land, in preference to the speculator. The land is prized from $1.75 to $2.25, the acre, and some timbered lands still higher. Some men go there, and the first day buy out a squatter's right, enter their names as a settler, and when the parcel of land is to be cried off, the auctioneer inquires if the bidder is a settler, the buyer answers "Settler." No more questions asked, and perhaps the purchaser will not set foot on the land again, but keep it to speculate on. Our friends will understand a man cannot lawfully pre-empt but once, let him go to what territory he will, but he can buy just as much land at these sales as he can get hold of. I will give two instances that occurred, this week, at Paoli. [Two?] poor New England boys went from this [place] where they had been stopping weeks-the you[nger] took a claim on the Shawnee lands, and after getting [61]

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considerable timber off for his own benefit sold the claim for $300 and never laid out one dollar on the claim, went down to the Peoria lands, took another, built him a cabin, and this week it was bid off to him for $1.75 per. acre, and now he has it all paid for, and $150 still owing him, for the Shawnee claim, [62] by a young man, abundantly able to pay, and he designs to take another immediately on Government land, and these two claims will be worth more than any dozen farms probably in the "rocky and rough" town of G., the place of his nativity, where the land is poor, but the people GOOD.

[copy torn] preparing his "lunch" for his [copy torn] way, observing he felt sad to start out [copy torn] said we to him, "God will bless you Daniel for your father's sake," for the Psalmist exclaims "I have never seen the seed of the righteous begging bread." "I hope so," said he, and that pious father who is no doubt praying daily for that exiled child, can have the satisfaction of knowing that God is blessing him temporally and in all his wanderings he still maintains his integrity. The other young man we thought would not do for Kansas, for instead of boxing up a "breaking plough" and bringing it all the way from New Hampshire, which would have been far more serviceable, he brought along his pianoforte, with all its "fixings," to teach music for a living in Kansas! We would not have given him ten dollars for his prospect of a livelihood, when he left here as he had but little money, and we thought by the way he managed, he would have less and would be soon taking the back track for the "Granite Hills," when, lo! the scale turns, and see how fortune favors the brave! He bought a claim for $150 with a cabin on it, as it was too much work to build one, gave his note, and this week sold the claim for seven hundred dollars.

The sales will probably continue this week. The settlers along the Kaw River, are feeling bad because the time is so long delayed for the land to come into market, for them to secure their claims. This region will not be in market for months yet to come, and a man must stick close to his claim, and almost fight to keep it from being jumped, till it is secured. This shameful business of jumping claims and shooting in return still goes on and seldom a week passes, but in some part of the Territory somebody has lost their

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life in these affrays. It is high time that a full stop is put to this business, by the people "en masse" before any more blood is spilled. A young man was shot dead in the vicinity of Leavenworth a few days ago. He was ordered off a claim, but would not leave, when he was brutally murdered.

Crops are growing finely, the rain is very much needed. There is a dead calm in the political sea-we think it augurs something unusual. Emigrants are still coming. A large body were encamped at "black jack" about six miles from here, [63] in the "Great Bend of the Arkansas River." Several have gone down from Lawrence and taken claims and report that the country is very fine, and timber plenty. This is causing quite an excitement with those who are desiring claims; the place is called Walnut Creek, [64] and lies directly on the Santa Fe route. This offers great inducement to settlers, and a ready market for corn, that Missouri has heretofore supplied. You will anon hear, no doubt, that a thriving town has sprung up. A man has returned from that point lately, and says while there, he saw herds of buffalo, miles in extent. We fully believe that is now the place for those who want a desirable Southern home. Provisions are very high, and it must be hard times here, till the crops come off.

In haste,

JULIA LOUISA LOVEJOY.

PALMYRA, K. T., Sept. 21, 1857.

MESSRS. EDITORS [65] :-. . . We will here give our experience in getting acclimated to Kansas, as we have spent three summers here. The first summer, we suffered but little sickness, as a family, and began to congratulate ourselves, that whatever else we might suffer here, we should enjoy as good health as in New Hampshire. The following summer our entire family had the "fever and ague," and some of us for months. Last spring, Mr. L. had the ague again for weeks, severely, and the present dry summer the most of our family have been sick, and I have not seen a day when I felt well and able to work as formerly. Others we meet with, who have not suffered with sickness at all.

As our letter is not full, and we write but little at a time, in detached sentences, we would like to tell your lady readers what has

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been, and is still, the bane of our life, in this beautiful country-we refer to snakes! We can face a wild cat, and endeavor to "look him out of countenance," when he became too tame to be endured. as we have stood in our cabin door, at the "Mouth of the Big Blue," and done more than once, and with uplifted axe, drove the intruder to the woods, after he had throttled and devoured the last of the race of Miss Bidd's, in our possession, save one, and that, through our powers of locomotion and self-possession, was rescued from a fearful ride, of perhaps twenty rods, on his back, with her head in his teeth, tho' the poor creature was so dreadfully lacerated in the encounter, she suffered decapitation immediately after the rescue!

We will tell some of the little boys, in New Hampshire, if ever we go there, how, day after day, when he would come into the dooryard, and up under our little window, we would get Charlie's big double-barrelled gun, and rest it on the window-sill, so near that ten feet would have reached him, yet we never had courage to go through the experiment, notwithstanding Charlie's systematic lessons and training, we never could come to the practical part of it, and he was sure to come when we were alone, or in the night.

Let a copper-head or a rattlesnake make their appearance, and our courage is all gone. We have never enjoyed a walk in the garden, or gathering plums, or, indeed, sleeping in our unfinished cabin in warm weather, on account of these intruders. I will tell three stories, if not more, about our neighbors' being bitten by snakes. Mrs. Sanders, wife of Capt. Sanders, formerly of Massachusetts, one extremely warm night, spread her bed on the ground inside of their cabin, as they had no floor, took her babe and one or two other children, and lay herself down to sleep. In the night she turned herself over to nurse her babe, and felt something sting her under lip severely; the pain increasing, she called on her husband, who slept elsewhere, who got a light and went to a trunk to get some "pain-killer," and there coiled behind the trunk was a rattlesnake; her lip continuing to swell shockingly, he ran for some neighbors, and when he returned found two more rattlesnakes in his cabin, and his poor wife in awful agony-her lip turned black, and one who saw it informed me that it looked as large as her arm -her head and neck swelled to her shoulders-her eyes assumed the peculiar look of a snake's eyes, and as long as she could speak, in piteous tones, she begged "them to keep the snakes from biting her children." It was with great difficulty the physician could keep her from choking to death; he scar[r]ed her neck all around in

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places that had turned black, and by a miracle almost, though great suffering, she was saved!

Now taking all the attendant circumstances into the account, is not this an unparalleled kiss? Another:-A young lady living about a mile from us, felt something crawling up her side, as she lay reclining on the other in bed, and supposing it to be her little "pet kitten," and not wishing to be disturbed in her slumbers, rudely pushed it away with her hand, when lo! the ominous sound! she shrieked to her mother, "a rattlesnake!" and sprung for a light, and there lay his snakeship, who was soon captured by mother and daughter, and expiated his detestable propensities, by being mauled to death with "sundry billets of wood." Mrs. Anderson, a lady 50 or more years of age, who lived on the opposite side of the Big Blue from us, threw her arms over her head in the night, as was her wont, when she felt a peculiar stinging sensation on her hand; she called for a light, and to her horror, saw a large copper-head over the head of her bed; she set up a terrific scream, supposing, probably, she had received her "death wound" -a messenger was dispatched for Dr. W., our son-in-law, who has had a number of such cases, and though her arm swelled dreadfully, to her shoulder, she was soon entirely cured.

Our only daughter was bitten on the side of her foot, through a kid bootee, as she was walking in the grove near our dwelling; and her husband being from home, it devolved on us, ignorant as we were in such cases, to try and save her life; and for the benefit of those in a similar dilemma, we will tell the process, which was afterwards pronounced "right." We first tied a strong ligature tightly above the ankle, applied our lips to extract the poison as far as possible, and gave her as much whiskey as we could get her to take, to keep it from her stomach-(by the way, the first "ardent spirits," under any circumstances, placed to the lips of a child by the writer.) The Doctor soon returned, and, though somewhat alarmed, the patient recovered, after suffering the pain of a swollen foot and some lameness. A timber rattlesnake, and prairie, are very different, the former being far worse than the latter.

JULIA LOUISA LOVEJOY.

PALMYRA, K. T., Nov. 30, 1857.

MR. EDITOR [66] :-Sometime since we sent a communication to the Independent Democrat, at Concord, N. H., giving a brief "sketch" of our first tour in this Territory, but as the letter was of more than ordinary size and weight, the man who was trusted to carry it to Lawrence to be mailed, no doubt thinking it contained money, opened it, and finding nothing but trash left it by the wayside. We will now fish up some of the incidents connected with this tour from memory's storehouse, that will give your New England readers some idea of Kansas life. And as it has become quite fashionable now-a-days, for equestrians and pedestrians, and for travelers of every description, in all sorts of conveyances, describable and indescribable, to give occasional "jottings," we, too, in plain, matter-of-fact style, would tell some of the many things that came under observation. Our health not being good the present season, we availed ourselves of an invitation from the missionary on the Oskaloosa Mission, to travel awhile in his "extended rounds," to share his "fare," and we have come to the very important conclusion, after a week's trial in going from one cabin to another, "that if we believed in the final salvation of the whole human family, unconditionally, for all the gold of Ophir we would not be a missionary in Kansas, and be compelled to suffer such hardships as the present pioneer-preachers of the gospel now submit to." But to our story: Behold us then, dear reader, as with wondrous merriment you peer out from among the hills of Yankeedom, and vainly guess with what kind of a name we have christened our strangely constructed vehicle, which consists of an elastic board, laid horizontally, from one axle to the other, with a low seat mid-way, and we advise travelers, hereafter, to discard "steel springs," entire; especially if they ride over saplings, fallen trees, stumps, and logs, as we have done in this journey, when benighted, having lost our way; and crossed unbridged and well-nigh impassable ravines, in a strange place, at the lone hour of night. On we jog, from our little cabin, ten miles to Lawrence. We forded the Kaw River, and the water ran over the top of our carriage, over our shoes, swept over our carpet-bag, so that every article of clothing it contained was thoroughly saturated; but we enjoyed it deliciously, as it was extremely hot, dry weather, and we had a nice, cool bath for our feet. We then struck into a road that crosses the "Delaware Reservation," where for twenty miles there is nothing to interrupt the solitariness

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of the weary traveler, as there is not a single cabin in that distance, unless one turns aside miles from his course, where settlers have illegally "squatted" on the "Kaw Reservation," which extends for miles on either side of the Kaw River, and is heavily timbered and immensely fertile. When we passed along that way, the chiefs of the tribes were at Washington, imploring aid from Congress to drive off these intruders. This rich land is expected soon to be treated for, and then what a scramble for it!

Night was fast coming on, and we turned aside to put up with one of these settlers, who was very happy to extend his hospitality to a minister of the gospel in this out-of-the-way place; but our lady readers will not wonder that for the livelong night our eyes were "held waking," when we tell them that in the room we occupied there were five beds and twelve or fourteen occupants, and within two feet of our bed lay a man recovering from a severe ease of small pox, and our babe had never been vaccinated, neither had we for many years; but there was no alternative; to retrace our steps was out of the question; to go forward in the darkness of the hour was impracticable; still we should have preferred sitting in the open carriage all night. The next morning we were up and off for Oskaloosa, which in Western parlance we found to be a "right smart heap of a place."

After rest, and refreshment at the house of a good brother late from Iowa, we proceeded on our journey, and lost our way! A thousand sympathies, hereafter, for the poor benighted traveler who loses his way on these almost interminable prairies. On we urge with lash and voice our jaded beast, who literally staggered through sheer fatigue, and soon found ourselves in a dense forest; and to add to our "sad fix," for a long, long way no cabin to make inquiries concerning our whereabouts; and vivid lightning's lurid glare, and loud thunder bellowing through the thicket proclaimed by "signs unmistakable," that a Kansas thunder storm was just upon us, we hugged still more closely our precious boy to our bosom, while husband dragged his weary limbs over fallen trees and under-brush, and led the horse by the bit, as we were out of the way of any vestige of a road. At a late hour, we "brought up" at a shanty in the woods, where we were cordially received, and provided with a comfortable bed, and soon the rain came down, and streamed through the roof and on to our bed; and after it had poured into our upturned face long enough to satisfy us, we changed position, and took the foot of the bed and had a chance for a nice, cool bath for our feet! On the whole we should have found this a night of rich enjoyment with a Christian family in this lone spot, with sundry reflections as to the honored position we were permitted- so unworthy as we felt ourselves to be-to occupy, as veritable missionaries. The highest aspiration of our heart from a girl of sixteen, has been to be a faithful missionary, and labor and suffer for Christ. Here then we were, at "the high noon of life," occupying the very position in Kansas we have so long coveted; but our reflections were ever and anon disturbed by some living thing gliding along and rattling the newspapers with which the walls were papered; and we were in constant fear lest a huge rattlesnake, after surfeiting himself on mice, of which they are extremely fond, would drop into the bed, from above, as they often do in unfinished cabins, or into our face. Heaven bless the dear family.

Next day found us on our way to an appointment for preaching; and, sir, it would have done your soul good to have been there! The crowded house, the fixed attention, tearful eyes and hearty responses, told that the Spirit was present. Now all our toils in getting there, in that sweet hour, were counted as nothing-and then the sequel, when there is such a "rush" to take the preacher's hand, and secure his company for the night, at their home, before any other can get the chance, so that the preacher has to tear himself away from them. There is such an affectionate, whole-souled heartiness about these "Westerners," that one cannot help feeling at home among them. From thence we went to Leavenworth, and were hardly prepared to see a city of such dimensions spring up by magic, in so short a time. Ornamental trees, and a beautiful style of architecture in many dwellings, reminded us of New England. From thence at a late hour in the afternoon we started for "Crooked Creek," [67] where our quarterly meeting was to be held the next Saturday and Sabbath, supposing we should have sufficient time to reach the residence of a family to whom we were directed, to spend the night with them; but lo! on our arrival no such family could be found, and we were in another dilemma! We supposed we had got on the track of the aforesaid family, a mile or two from the road, and off we pushed in the twilight, as evening had begun to spread her sable pall on all surrounding objects, over the worst road we ever traveled, and finally no road at all, as stumps, logs and bushes had to be met at almost every step; on reaching the

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spot a hang-dog looking Dutchman accosted us in a surly manner, and a singularly appearing Dutch-woman seemed struck with astonishment that we should venture within their precincts at this unseemly hour. We wheeled our horse about without alighting from our carriage, and as fast as it was possible to do so retraced our steps to the main road, glad to escape, as was Pilgrim from the castle of Giant Despair; once in the Military Road again we resolved to drive to Easton, if our horse did not give out, as he was sick, though we had to ride all night. At a late hour we arrived at Easton, [68] a strong pro-slavery community, where the tragic murder of R. P. Brown by fiends incarnate, was accomplished-and the public have never yet learned half the revolting particulars of this brutal murder. Brown was a martyr to freedom, in the full sense of the term. A worthy member of our church told us he was at the store when the gang drove up, with him in the wagon, his body hacked over with their hatchets, and while they left him in the street, a bitter cold night, to go in for their dram, the blood ran from his wounds through the carriage bottom, into the road, and stood in puddles on the snow; and one of them spat tobacco juice in Mr. Brown's face and eyes, as he lay dying, the whole route; and he not daring to plead one word for poor Brown, lest he, too, might be the next victim. [69]

This region is the strongest pro-slavery of any now in the Territory; and a volume could not contain the sufferings of the Free State men, who unflinchingly stood erect, when their houses were rifled, their cattle and horses taken, and they repeatedly shot at, as beasts of prey, and finally imprisoned. Our next drive was for a beautiful grove, where a glorious quarterly meeting was held, in true Western style. The preaching, praying, singing and shouting, was as if the citadel must surrender or be taken by storm, which was done effectually, and we alternately laughed and wept; and so would you, Mr. Editor; and the grand old woods rung, as they had not to celestial notes, since that august morn when "the morning stars sang together, and all the sons of God shouted for joy." A number of children were consecrated to

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God in baptism, including our little Kansas-born Irving. But what earthly Eden was ever found, without the serpent there? As we rode on to the ground, where we were to stop, in alighting, lay coiled up a rattlesnake, who was soon dispatched, and found to have six rattles.

It would do your city preachers good, cooped up as they are, from Sabbath to Sabbath, between dingy walls of brick, to snuff the exhilarating prairie breeze, and attend one of those soul-enlivening meetings that are considered such a "great occasion" by our good Western brethren. Only think, Yankee sister, there were full forty fed at the same tables in the family where we were served, and the "heaps" of chickens held out to the last.

Mr. Lovejoy's mission embraces Oskaloosa, Osaukie, Easton and Fairfield, [70] with an indefinite number of appointments on various creeks that intersect this country in all directions, so that he is with his family but little. Shall we, sir, for the benefit of our dear New England preachers, wives, (pardon our weakness, we cannot keep back the tear that wells up at the thought of some we so much love,) shall we attempt a description of the reception they may expect to meet, when they come to Kansas, and call upon some of their Western well-to-do-in-the-world brethren, though many they will find with coarse fare? You rein your steed in front of a log cabin, with one, and sometimes two rooms, and out runs the father, followed by some half dozen white-haired youngsters, and, sans ceremony, seizes your hand with no very light grip:-"I am mighty glad to see you; I reckon as how there will be heaps of people to hear the sarmint tomorrow. We have had heaps of dry weather, so we have had to pack all our water from yon ravine, and crops, I allow, will be powerful light." You begin to scare away the pigs and chickens, and prepare to scale the fence, that almost invariably surrounds these domiciles, and by actual count, we usually found them five or six rails high, and if, unfortunately, like ourselves, addicted to corpulency, it may be some matter of calculation how you will succeed in your perilous attempt to land on the other side, though we have always performed the feat with, to us, surprising agility. Then commences an onslaught on the chickens, for the preacher has come, and he must feed on the best we can furnish. And such a "hue and cry," from the throats of hundreds of these disturbed pipers, as though all hen-dom was in commotion, creating a perfect Babel.

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Some of the habits of Western life, originating doubtless in necessity, are truly shocking to our Yankee notions of propriety; especially, when so many of different sexes lodge in one room, in uncurtained beds. If you wish to change your linen, why haste away to the grove, to perform your toilet, as other preachers now have to do; or, if the wet grass is up to your arm-pits, do as Mr. Lovejoy did recently, who, Sabbath morn, threw his soiled nether garment across his carriage-seat to dry, as it was well saturated with perspiration. When he turned to look for it, lo! it had all disappeared, save the wristband and "wee bit" of one sleeve, and where think you it was? Why, mulched into the maw of a live ox, who was forced to disgorge its contents, instanter; but ah me! the rents and tears were unmendable. If we can enjoy health, as formerly, we shall, after all, enjoy much of missionary life in Kansas.

Respectfully yours,

JULIA LOUISA LOVEJOY.

P. S. Politics here are assuming a fearful crisis; and will not prayer unceasing go up to the God of heaven, by our dear sympathizing brethren, that the horrors of war may not be again forced upon us, by thrusting this miserably fraudulent State Constitution, a. slave code, conceived in iniquity, and brought forth in abominable falsehood, on to this abused and shamefully insulted people?

J. L. L.

PALMYRA, K. T., Dec. 2d, 1857.

MESSRS. EDITORS [71] : This ill-fated territory has been the theatre of so many cold-blooded murders, or "deaths by violence," that the record of them has ceased to produce but very little excitement, save in a limited circle, where they occur; but when the "oldest settler," (aside from the Kaw Indians) has been assassinated, by sundry blows, "well laid on"-when he, who for more than a score of years, has held undisputed possession, of the region around the junction of the Big Blue and Kaw Rivers, has been ruthlessly beaten to death; deserves it not, more than a passing notice?

Dr. S. Whitehorn, of Manhattan, with no "malice aforethought," save what he bears to the particular genus, (not genus homo,) has had the audacity, not only to slay, but thrust his lifeless victim, into a glass jar, filled with alcohol, to preserve the trophy of his victory, to grace his cabinet! The culprit met his doom, sans cere-

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mony, as he was in the very act of stealthily crawling under a neighbor's house, whether for purposes of burglary, or intent on getting a good supper, (as they with all other fastidious epicures, have some favorite dish) our deponent saith not. The species are extremely fond of certain four-legged animals, that infest the cabins of the "settlers," where a plentiful supply of the feline species, is an indispensable desideratum; and the feats of agility, they have performed after a night's meal, in dropping from "above" on to beds, to the horror of the occupants, we have not time to tell. John Smith now occupies the first cabin, built in the "Great bend" of the Blue, of which the writer was the sole mistress for many a lonely day.

You are aware, sirs, there is a certain ubiquity attached to this name-this same veritable being awoke one morning from his bachelor slumbers, and found one of the same "kith and kin" of him whose fate we are now recording, stretched at full length across his "light stand," with a mouse in his distended jaws! But we digress from our tale of truth. Dr. W. who by the way, has quite a taste for antiquarian "relics," carefully scanning his victim, found a certain appendage which was unmistakable proof that, for twenty three years, in a Summer's sun, he had basked near the sunny slope of "old Bluemont." Dear reader among the Granite hills, did you ever see a mammoth rattlesnake?

But we want to say a few things with regard to matters politically, in this our adopted home. As much as we once hated the idea of women politicians, no true woman who has been cradled among the liberty loving people of New Hampshire, who has from infancy to womanhood, inhaled the zephyrs that fanned the noble brow of a Stark, could be in Kansas, and see what we have seen and feel what we have felt, and not wax enthusiastically zealous for universal freedom. Of all the shameful "crises" that has been basely forced upon us as a people, the crisis that matters have now assumed, seems to us the most hateful; and after all we have passed through from the tender mercies of slave democracy, if this bantling of a Constitution [72] fraudulently conceived in whisky-fuddled brains, and ushered into being amid the bristling bayonets of U. S. soldiery to guard it from an outraged people-we repeat: if a government, under that miserable slave code is forced upon this struggling people, war is inevitable, and ere its death shriek shall die away along the Kaw valley, the people will be in arms from the

316 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

nethermost settlement on the Republican fork, to Eldorado, two hundred miles away, in the far S. W. And Sirs: believe me, when this awful crisis comes, there will be found more than one "Joan of Arc" in point of moral courage, that will fearlessly stand for the right.

Tell us not, the heroines of the revolution have never found successful imitators, in "daring deeds" of courage in the present generation of fragile women! We can lead you to the homes of our sex in Kansas, where two lone women mounted their ponies, and in dead of night expecting to meet a detachment of the enemy at every leap of their horses, galloped eight miles to Hickory point, where they had heard the booming of cannon all day, to learn the fate of loved ones, in the battle. The one had a husband, and the other a son. Now let a yankee woman imagine she sees them with their horses at the top of their speed, their cape bonnets streaming in the wind as "ever and anon" they turn their anxious eyes homeward, to see if their dwelling was in flames, as the threat had often been made, and only saved by the intrepid courage of their daughter, who is a Hoosier, and looked to us, with her brawny arms and big bare feet, with a profusion of jewelry pendant from the ears, as though she might strike terror, even into the heart of a "border ruffian." The husband and father was from home most of the time, in skirmishes with the enemy, and several times, did a party of armed ruffians order the family to leave the house that they might fire the premises, and as there was a group of children, they did not want to roast them alive. This girl would confront them in the door way, and always succeeded in keeping them at bay. There are thrilling incidents connected with "Kansas affairs" that ought to be treasured up for the benefit of the future historian.

What think our democratic friends in New Hampshire now about Walker's promises? The Oxford fraud [73] is but a tithe of the fraud practiced here; and how much longer, suppose ye, will christian men and women-unflinch[ing] advocates for temperance and moral purity-descendants of the pilgrims of Plymouth Rock, submit to be governed and trodden upon by blear-eyed, whisky-bloated debauchees, who forsooth, before the final "pack up" for headquarters, might find it convenient to wind up with a grand finale. The fact as reported to us, will be recorded doubtless by an abler pen

LETTERS of JULIA LOVEJOY 317

than we can wield. What the next act in this drama will be, time can alone determine.

Let prayer to the God of heaven go up unceasingly from pious hearts, in behalf of this people, and if war is forced upon us, by Buchanan and Co., who are leagued with the South, let brave hearts, from the Granite hills, respond to the call of their insulted brethren in Kansas, and whole regiments of "Invincibles," throng the thorough-fares that lead in this direction. Ere this reaches you, there will be rejoicing or wailing among the sons and daughters of New England sires in this fair land. Heaven defend the right.

JULIA LOUISA LOVEJOY.

[LATE DECEMBER, 1857, JANUARY 1, 1855]

Bro. HAVEN [74] :-We beg the privilege of saying to our dear New England friends, through the Herald, that we are in the midst of a glorious revival of religion in this place, and it would do your soul good to see the people flocking in every direction to the place of worship, and the almost breathless attention that pervades the multitudes as they listen to the story of the cross. God is in the place, in very deed. Last evening, as we knelt at the "mourner's bench," were two souls just initiated by the Holy Ghost into the mysteries of salvation-one a beautiful young widow, who had buried her husband and only child in this Territory, and she came to lay her poor lacerated heart, all bleeding and torn by repeated bereavement, at the feet of Him who alone can bind up and heal; the other, an intelligent lady from Ohio. Our meetings have been in progress about one week, and the sound has gone out through the adjacent country that God is pouring out his Spirit in this beautiful prospective city, and a general interest is awakened. A local preacher from Iowa, a giant in Israel in intellectual strength and ability, has come back into our ranks, and in the name of the Lord of Hosts, is mowing a swarth through men and devils. Our brethren may think this strong language; but only three weeks ago, as Mr. Lovejoy was attending his duties as chaplain of the Legislature, at Lecompton, this same man was there, and raving like an infuriated maniac, under the influence of whiskey, and intense hatred and wrath, which has been nursed by some new outrage on the part of the Pro-slavery Ruffians, for more than a year, and his inmost soul has been burning with rage; and had the power been his, as well as the will, they had long since sunk to the nethermost

Notes

36. The Independent Democrat, Concord, N. H.
37. P. H. Townsend came from New Hampshire to Kansas in the spring of 1856 and settled at Big Springs. He was prominent in the political affairs of the territory and served in the territorial legislature of 1859. He wrote for The Independent Democrat of Concord, N. H.-Lawrence Republican, February 10, 1859.
38. Probably P. H. Townsend. See Footnote 37.
39. Granite State Whig, Lebanon, N.H.
40. Free-State prisoners who were imprisoned at Lecompton.
41>. W. F. M. Arny, general agent, National Kansas Committee.
42. Northeastern Christian Advocate,
43. Probably Dr. A. T. Still, the founder of osteopathy, then a resident of southern Douglas county.
44. The Independent Democrat, Concord, N. H., February 12, 1857.
45. Governor Geary's message to the legislature.
46. Former Gov. Andrew H. Reeder escaped his Proslavery pursuers in May, 1856, by disguising himself as an Irish laborer before taking passage on a Missouri river steamboat."Governor Reeder's Escape From Kansas," Kansas Historical Collections, v. 3, pp. 295-223.
47. See Footnote 41.
48. The Independent Democrat, Concord, N. H.
49. Betsy Hardy of Lebanon, N.H., Bardy of Lebanon, N. H.
50. The Independent Democrat, Concord, N. H.
51. Young America was the name of a town projected on One Hundred and Ten creek in Osage county. The town company numbered 63 members. The place never succeeded in becoming a town.-A. T. Andreas and W. G. Cutler, History of the State of Kansas (Chicago, 1883), p. 1531.
52. At the charter election in St. Louis, Mo., on April 8, 1857, gradual emancipation of the slaves was an issue. The party favoring emancipation won over the Proslavery party by a 1,500 majority.-New York Tribune, April 8, 13, 1857.
53. The Independent Democrat, Concord, N. H.
54. The Independent Democrat, Concord, N. H.
55. Columbus City was located in Burr Oak township in Doniphan county. It was laid out in May, 1857. "This town had some growth, and was for a number of years assessed as a town site, but has been long since [before 1883] vacated." -Andreas-Cutler, op. cit., p. 473.
56. Thomas W. Barber, a Free-State man, was shot and killed four miles southwest of Lawrence December 6, 1855, when he refused to surrender to a Proslavery band.-D. W. Wilder, The Annals of Kansas (Topeka, 1886), p. 87.
57. Zion's Herald, Boston.
58. More popularly known as John Brown's Battle of Black Jack which took place June 2, 1858, about four miles southeast of present Baldwin.-See Kansas Historical Quarterly, v. 10, p. 354.
59. The raid on Lawrence of May 21, 1858, by members of the so-called "Law and Order party" under Sheriff Samuel Jones. Killed were two Free-State men and one from the invading force mentioned above. >
60. The Independent Democrat, Concord, N. H.
61. On June 24, 1857, Wilder noted in his Annals, p. 170, "Land sales at Paola. Walker and Stanton present."
62. The Shawnee Indian lands were thrown open for purchase and preemption November 19, 1857. Ibid., p. 198.
63. Apparently an omission here.
64. Walnut Creek was first established as a post office in May, 1853. It was located on the Arkansas river at the mouth of walnut creek in present Barton county. A military post was established here or in the vicinity in June, 1853, by the removal of Company D, Fifth infantry, from Fort Atkinson.-See Kansas Historical Collections, v. 1-2, p. 265. >
65. The Independent Democrat, Concord, N. H., October 8, 1857.
66. Probably Zion's Herald, Boston, Mass.
67. Crooked Creek was located on a creek by the same name in Jefferson county about five miles southeast of present Nortonville. Except that it had a post office for several years little is known of it.a>
68. Easton is in the northwestern part of Leavenworth county in Easton township.
69. The murder of Capt. Reese P. Brown by a Proslavery mob occurred January 18, 1856. According to Wilder's account, Brown and seven others on their way to Leavenworth were arrested and taken to Easton where a Proslavery mob had assembled. They were guarded through the day and at night all the Free-State men were released except Brown. He was taken out and assaulted with hatchet and knives, then dragged to a wagon and carried to Dunn's liquor shop in Salt Creek valley. Finding that Brown must die, he was taken to his home where he soon expired. Captain Brown had been in Lawrence during the Wakarusa war aiding the Free-State men. He was a member elect of the Free-State legislature.-Wilder, op. cit., January 17-20, 1856.a>
70. Fairfield was a town in Jefferson county, now extinct.
71. The Independent Democrat, Concord, N. H.
72. The Lecompton constitution, drawn up in the fall of 1857.
73. The names of 1,628 persons were listed as having voted at Oxford precinct, Johnson county, in an election October 5, 6, 1857. As the precinct contained but eleven houses, Gov. R. J. Walker and Sec. F. P. Stanton refused to accept the count.-Wilder, op. cit., p. 195.
74. Zion's Herald, Boston, Mass.