The Diary of James R. Stewart, 1
Pioneer of Osage County
April, 1855 - April, 1857;
May, 1858 - November, 1860
February 1949 (Vol. 17 No. 1), pages 1 to 36.
Transcribed by Lynn H. Nelson; HTML editing by Tod Roberts;
digitized with permission of the Kansas Historical Society.
(The numbers in brackets are links to endnotes.)
JAMES R. Stewart, a young bachelor from New Castle, Pa., came to Kansas territory in the fall of 1854 with his brother William and a company of fellow-Pennsylvanians. The Stewarts had joined an association called the Western Pennsylvania Kansas Company which was organized at Conneautville, Pa., on September 16, 1854, with the stated objective of settling Kansas with anti-slavery and temperance people. An agent of a similar group, the American Settlement Company of New York, was present at the Conneautville meeting, and the Pennsylvanians adopted a resolution to appoint a delegate to confer with the New York company on selecting a site in Kansas. 
The pioneer colony from western Pennsylvania set out for Kansas on October 27, 1854, under the direction of Charles Albright, one of the secretaries of the company, and arrived at Kansas City, Mo., on November 9. There were probably over 200 persons in this party, but the group quickly broke up after reaching Kansas, the members being disgruntled over lack of accommodations and apparent mismanagement of their affairs, and discouraged by the rainy and snowy weather which they encountered. When George W. Brown, the company's president, arrived in Kansas City a few days later, he found that the members were already scattered. Some had gone to the new towns of Lawrence and Topeka, some had stayed at Kansas City, Westport, Parkville and other points in Missouri, and some had returned to Pennsylvania. 
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Meanwhile, the locating committee of the two companies was traveling over the Kansas prairies in search of a townsite. This group consisted of George H. Stebbins and Lotan Smith of New York state and Joseph W. Kerr and George W. Barnes of New York City, representing the American Settlement Company, and Dr. William F. Owen of Pennsylvania, representing the Western Pennsylvania Kansas Company. They had traveled from St. Louis to Kansas City on the steamer Polar Star. Other passengers on this trip were Andrew H. Reeder, newly appointed governor of Kansas territory, and James M. Winchell of New York, who settled in Osage county and later was president of the Wyandotte constitutional convention. Winchell accepted an invitation to accompany the exploratory party in their search for a location for the new colony.
A townsite actually had been selected in advance, and believing that it occupied the old Indian trading post of Council Grove, about 140 miles out on the Santa Fe trail, the locating committee had already christened their new town Council City. However, they were not sure of the exact location, and when they learned that Council Grove was situated on an Indian reservation and was not available for settlement they transferred the name of Council City to a new site.
The tour, which was made in the wagon of a Shawnee Indian named Jackson, took them over the Santa Fe trail through Westport, Shawnee Mission, and Black Jack, where they made their first camp. On the afternoon of the third day they reached One Hundred and Ten crossing, and pushed on the seven miles which separated them from "our imaginary town of Council City." This, according to Winchell, was supposed to be at the crossing of Switzler creek, a few miles above its junction with the Dragoon. "When we reached an eminence overlooking the region lying between the two creeks, the sun was about setting; a light haze softened the picture, and we ordered the wagon to stop, and burst into a cheer of spontaneous admiration. Never before nor since, in Kansas, have I seen a landscape so calculated to excite pleasure as this. . . . Who selected this spot as a site for a `city'? I do not know: but, at that moment we were unanimously agreed to ratify the choice. . . ." 
On the other side of Switzler creek the party came in sight of an Indian log house, abandoned by its original occupants and inhabited by Isaac B. Titus and his family, emigrants from Iowa, who are frequently mentioned by Stewart in his diary. There the explorers
DIARY OF JAMES R. STEWART 3
spent the night, and next day they moved on downstream toward the confluence with Dragoon creek, selecting homesteads as they went. They did not make definite selection of a townsite, but traveled on another day-forty miles-to Council Grove to assure themselves that it was indeed unavailable. They then struck north to Fort Riley, and after leaving there traveled east along the north bank of the Kansas river to a point which they judged nearly opposite Council City. There the party divided. Owen, Smith and Barnes, with Jackson and the wagon, returned to Kansas City, while Stebbins, Kerr and Winchell proceeded south on foot to lay out the townsite. 
During the autumn of 1854 and in the following spring, many settlers arrived to take up claims in the vicinity of Council City. In his diary Stewart speaks often of friends and acquaintances in the new settlement. Isaac Titus, his wife Minerva, and their children Lorana, Idelda, and Isaac S., were among the earliest comers. John W. Freel (or Frele), an Iowa farmer, was the first settler to locate in Osage county after the organization of Kansas territory. With his wife, Mary Ann, and their daughter Margaret, he stopped at a point on the Santa Fe trail where Burlingame is now located. Their son Thomas, born that winter, was the first white child born in the county. Absalom W. Hoover, a farmer, was one of the Pennsylvania party which arrived at Council City on November 14. He had a wife, Catherine, and four children. The Bratton family, George and Sarah and their four children, also came from Pennsylvania, as did Joseph McDonald, a tailor, who was one of the oldest men among the settlers. Other Pennsylvanians included Joseph and Johnston McIntire, wagon maker and carpenter respectively; Marcus H. Rose, a stonemason; Ithiel Streit, a carpenter, and his wife and child, and David Condit, a farmer. From Ohio came the Harveys, Henry and George, who were farmers, and Samuel, a cabinetmaker. Foster Harvey, a physician, was perhaps of the same family, but is shown in the census of 1855 as emigrating from Indiana.
Lotan Smith, the resident agent of the American Settlement Company until he was succeeded by James M. Winchell in the spring of 1855, was a farmer from New York. Winchell described him as "an elderly man, of a great deal of energy, and self-esteem, with grey hair and black, sharp eyes, which, in moments of excitement, snapped like torpedoes. . . . [He] was illiterate, but made industry a
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substitute for culture. He wore a pair of horn-rimmed spectacles, through which the sparkles darted when his temper was excited. . . ." In his capacity as agent, Smith built a large log-house on the townsite which was called the council house, and was used for all public purposes. Another of the town fathers, J. W. Kerr, although commonly addressed as "doctor" and listed in the 1855 census as a physician, was said by Winchell to have been a druggist in New York. 
Of James Stewart himself comparatively little is known. He was born in or near New Castle on December 20, 1829, and is listed in the territorial census of 1855 as a saddler by profession. He lived at Council City, which was renamed Burlingame in 1857 (see diary entry for March 24, 1857), from his arrival in 1854 until 1868. During those years he was active in community affairs, and was elected justice of the peace in 1860. He served briefly in the Civil War as a sergeant in Company D, Second regiment, Kansas Volunteer infantry, from May 14 to October 31, 1861, the dates on which the regiment was mustered into and out of service.  In 1862, while on a visit to his old home in Pennsylvania, he married Mary A. Newell. Later he was county attorney and representative from Osage county in the state legislature. In 1868 he was suffering from "bronchitis and general debility," and planned a trip across the plains to New Mexico, hoping that the journey would improve his health. However, his illness had so weakened him that his doctors warned him against the expedition, and he and his wife left for a visit to New Castle early in May. In late May or early June he died there of consumption. 
The diary which follows was secured through the courtesy of Leon R. Mitchell of Burlingame. It is in two volumes, the first covering the period from April, 1855, to April, 1857, and the second from May, 1858, to November, 1860. It will be published in four installments in the Quarterly.
DIARY OF JAMES R. STEWART 5
II. THE DIARY
PART ONE: APRIL-OCTOBER, 1855
APRIL 1855 KANSAS TER.
Cool & windy all day but moderate in the evening. Read Great Harmonia  during the forenoon, went down to Hoovers in afternoon, thence to Titus', thence to Freels, back to Hoovers, bought 21 lbs bacon from him, and thence home, got back about 2 oC[l]ock and read Great Harmonia ballance the day.
Clear Calm warm & pleasant. Went over to Brother Wills  Cabin, worked with him at his chimney two or three hours, returned home, read Great Harmonia untill towards evening, received three letters by the hand of Mr. Johnston, read over my letters, and wrote one to Mr & Mrs Walton.
Cloudy distant thunder and threatning rain in forenoon, clear & pleasant in afternoon. Slept late in the morning Read Great Harmonia short time, eat breakfast, went down to Hoovers, paid Mrs. Hoover for baking my bread, went thence to Titus'. Saw & got acquainted with Mr. Earl, thence to Freels, got acquainted with the Basingger family. Went thence to Hunt our Oxen, crossed Dragoon Creek, stopped at Henry Smiths, got acquainted with Mrs. Howard, passed down the creek to the mouth of Log Chain, thence up log-chain about one mile. found Mr. Amy Smith & two others working at building a cabin, sat and talked short time, went thence back across dragoon Creek to Freels, walked up home with Mrs. Paine,  thence home, read Great Harmonia.
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Clear & pleasant. Arose early, got breakfast, read Great Harmonia short time, dressed a duck that Gilmore had shot, put it to cooking in a pot of beans, shaved, took a universal bathe, read over some old letters, commenced third vol, Great Harmonia, continued reading some time, eat diner of duck & bean soup, took a walk down to the garden, returned, resumed reading, read short time when Mr. John Dick & another man call [ed] in, directly from New Castle. Was glad to see them being the first living thing, I saw, from New Castle since I left. They brought me some letters & papers. I got them some diner & sat down to read my letters and papers, had long talk with Dick about New Castle In the evening I received some more papers. looked over them and wrote a letter to O. G. Hazen.
Cloudy & a few drops of rain. in the morning, cleared up warm about noon with pleasant breeze which increased to a high wind and continued so all day. Got up by sun up, eat breakfast took some flour down to Mrs Hoover to get some bread baked went thence to Titus' got acquainted with Mr & Mrs White, left a letter to be sent to the Post-office, went thence to Freels, stopped & talked short time, thence to hunt the oxen, rowd over to Dragoon Creek in Streits waggon.  Stopped at Wards & inquired about the oxen, was directed to where they were, found them & drove them home, yoked them up and hauled a load of wood. Read newspapers, worked in my garden, fidled, & wrote letters alternately remainder of the day.
A little Cloudy with a warm and high breeze all day. Worked in the garden some time, came back to the house put some beans on to cook, read newspapers a while. Went over to Wills, got shovel and hatchet, returned eat diner, worked in garden remainder the day. read Newspapers until bed-time bathed and went to bed.
Cloudy & windy all day with few rain. Worked in the garden some time in the morning, returned to the house, read a while, worked & read alternately all day.
DIARY OF JAMES R. STEWART 7
Cool north wind but not unpleasant. Worked in the garden & read alternately all day.
Clear & pleasant. Worked in garden all day.
Pleasant but cloudy & a few drops of rain in the evening. Worked in my garden in forenoon, went down in afternoon, returned in evening read fidled bathed & went to bed.
Warm with scatered clouds & high wind. Wrote a letter & read in forenoon, went down to Hoovers and read newspapers there a while, received a letter from J. P. Woodruff by the hand of Lotan Smith, returned home & read untill bed-time; took a universal bathe.
Warm & sultry most of the day, cloudy distant thunder and threatning of rain in evening. Worked in my garden all day, read Great Harmonia in the evening.
Cloudy, a light shower about noon, and a little rain through the day. Worked all day in the garden, finished reading Great Harmonia in the evening.
Cloudy & a few drops of rain in the forenoon, clear & pleasant in the afternoon. Worked in garden as usual in forenoon, went down town to attend settlers meeting in afternoon, got home short time before sun down, commenced garden seeds from him, received a letter & peice of music from Miss Clara E. writing a constitution for a literary society, worked at it for some time and then commenced reading Young Mans Counselor, read some time and retired to bed. The settlers meeting was of no account, had no object in view & did nothing. Brother & I seperated to day, he removing to his own cabin. After the settlers meeting ajourned, a few of us holding an informal meeting to consult about organizing a literry society, we appointed a commitee to make a constitution, myself chairman.
Clear & pleasant. Worked in my garden all day untill about five OClock, then went down town, Saw Lotan Smith, got a few
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garden seeds from him, recieved a letter & peice of music from Miss Clara E. Mcmillen. Stopped at Hoovers, got some bread, returned home, arrived after dark, found Jim [James J.] Miller & Jim [James 11.] Young there, got them some supper, talked, tolld stories &c during the evening.
Scattered Clodes, the sun appearing occasionally. Worked through the day, fidled read & wrote some, Saw, heard, nor experienced nothing uncomon.
Pleasant all day. Worked in garden in forenoon, dressed up and went to Stock holders meeting at Titus' in afternoon, was appointed a committee to invite Lotan Smith to attend, found him at the boarding house, fulfilled my commission and returned to the meeting, remained untill it adjourned returned home, wrote some at constitution for Lyceum.
Beautiful all day. Wrote two letters, one to Clara Mcmillen and one to Mary Craven. Went over to Wills, returned, wrote read &c ballance the day.
Beautiful all day. Worked in garden. went over to Brothers, stopped short time, returned, put some beans and pork to cooking, worked some more in garden, took some flour down to Hoovers to get bread baked, thence to Freels, Saw Mr Mcdonald, talked with him about breaking prarie, came home in the evening, eat supper, burnt some brush in my garden, wrote ballance of the constitution for Lyceum, read some in the bible, commenced reading Willards Universal history. 
A little cool but pleasant. Planted corn in forenoon, went to town in the afternon Stopped at Hoover & got my bread. Came home, went over to Wills, returned read & fiddled till bed time.
Pleasant, a little cool in evening. Planted Corn, Onions, radishes Beets, peas &c, read & fidled alternately through the eve
DIARY OF JAMES R. STEWART 9
ning. All alone for the last three days begining to feel lonesome & homesick.
A little cool in the morning. Clear & rather pleasant through the day. Went down town in the morning to get Mcdonalds oxen and plough. The oxen were not home, so I went up to the boarding house and got some garden seeds from Lotan Smith, went thence to Titus', got him to fix Mcdonalds plough, thence to Freels, thence home, planted my seeds, read, fidled &c till towards evening, went back for the Oxen & plough, brought them home, went over to Wills, back home read, fidled &c till bed-time. Am not in very good spirits today
Clear warm & beautiful all day. Got up very early and spent about an hour hunting the oxen found them and yoked them up and went over to Wills to plough began it with two yoke of oxen, worked till about 10 OClock and turned the oxen out to rest, and pasture untill about 2 OClock Commenced again and continued at it untill sun-down, came home fiddled and read till bed-time.
Cloudy all day and some rain in the evening. Worked a little at ploughing, but, the ground being very dry and hard, concluded to quit it. Came home, washed dressed and went down town to attend Stockholders meeting, was chosen Sec. of meeting, came home in evening, sold Young some salt, Mr Mcdonald came about dark and stayed all night.
Beautiful in the extreme Read, but nothing else. Had a call from Miller & Freel, and Mr. Mcdonald for company all day. Good spirits & good nature.
Beautiful in the morning. Scatered clouds in the evening thunder lightning & rain after night. Took some flour down to Hoovers to get bread baked, went thence to Titus', received four letters, returned home, planted a little corn, sold a bed cord to Jim Young, read some, wrote a letter to J A Addis, had a visit from Amy Smith, walked down town with him, stoped at Freels, thence to Titus' recieved two letters, went thence to Hoovers, got my bread, thence home, read my letters, and read in Universal history till bed-time.
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Pleasant through the day, Cloudy, thunder, lightning & rain in the evening. Went up to Youngs the first thing in the morning after some medicine for Mr Mcdonald, got it and returned home, sat down to read and shortly after four men came in on the hunt of Claims and wished me to go with them. I did so, after showing where they could get them, I returned home and wrote two letters, played cards with Mr Mcdonald in the evening.
Cloudy but pleasant, thunder lightning & rain after dark. Wrote a letter to Bill Pearson in forenoon, went to town in the afternoon, attended a school meeting at the boarding house, was chosen sec. after the school meeting attended a political meeting at which Dr. Kerr was nominated as our candidate for councilman. At the close of the meeting, made a bargain with Mcdonald & Kerr to join teams and break prarie, came home Read &c untill bed-time.
Pleasant all day. Went over to Wills & got him to take the plough down to the Blacksmith shop to have it repaired, returned home & worked in garden all day.
Pleasant in the morning. Cloudy, thunder, lightning, & a heavy hail storm about four OClock. Worked in the garden a short time, recieved a call from Dr Kerr & Mr Earle, who wished me to go down & see Mr Baker, who was expected down from Council Grove, and learn of him what had been done in his district about nominating a candidate for Councilman. I accordingly went down, and Baker not having arrived, I went over to Printiss's and sold him the Oxen, Came home, took the oxen down to him & took his note for the money $90.00, returned home without seeing Baker. 
Beautiful. Read most all day, finished reading universal history & commenced the American Manual. recieved a call from Dr. Kerr & Mr Earle returning from Topeka.
DIARY OF JAMES R. STEWART 11
Pleasant but good breeze Slept untill very late. Made a line to go fishing with. Went over to Wills & thence with Johnston over to Dragoon Creek to fish, caught nothing, Started back for home, stopped at Skidmores  and got some whiskey, came home, went to bed & read some time, got sleepy & took a nap, woke up about dark, tossed round on the bed a while, got up, took a bathe, & read a short time in the bible. taking all things into consideration this day has been about as good as Lost.
Pleasant, most too warm. Went down to Prentiss' and helped him all day, returned home in the evening, found a rattle-snake in the house, Killed it, read letters, and of course went to bed.
Pleasant. Worked with Print. We had a special election today for councilman-the result of having contested the former election, at which Strickler & Magee were said to have been elected. We elected Dr Wood of Brownville in our district. 
Rained a little last night, pleasant through the day. Cloudy in the evening, thunder Worked in the garden & read alternately greater part of the day, took some flour down to Hoovers, thence to Allison's , recieved some mail matter, then home. Low spirits to-day.
Pleasant all day. Worked a little in my garden and read most the day. had a call from Messrs Earle & [John E.] Gould, went down in the evening to Hoovers, got my bread, payed for baking it. and returned home. Had the blues to-day very much.
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Little Cloudy in the morn rained several small showers before noon and the hardest one since I came to the Ter. in the afternoon. also some hail. Went down to Prentiss' early in the morning and helped him plough all day except while it rained. Went over to Freels in the evening to attend meeting to organize a lyceum, got into a discussion on religion with Mr Amy Smith, he being a Universalist, argued with him until dark. the prospects for a meeting being rather slim I concluded to go home, Started and when I arrived at Mcdonalds Branch the water was so high could not get accross, after runing about five miles to find a place to cross concluded to go back to Hoovers and stay there, got there about twelve OClock at night, wet and cold. got into bed with Squire Rose and put the night over rather comfortably.
Pleasant, a few drops of rain about one OClock. Got up early and left Hoovers for home, found Gilmore & Bill [William A.] Smith there, got breakfast, and waited a short time on Prentiss who came up with his team and broke prarie for me, myself holding the plough. Brother Will planted after us, this is the first of my Prarie farming. read in the evening. A heavy shower occurred after dark.
Pleasant all day. Read in the American Manual some time, took a good bathe, eat dinner, & went down town. Loafed round sometime. Came home, had Young onions and radishes for supper, finished reading American Manual and commenced Olneys family book of history, read a few Chapters in the bible. 
Beautiful all day. Planted a little corn in the morning and worked at ploughing remainder of the day.
Cloudy in the morning, rained more or less all afternoon. Ploughed all day. Spirits pretty good.
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Very beautiful all day. Planted corn all day.
Pleasant in the forenoon, a little rain in the afternoon. Planted corn, received five letters & a bundle of papers, the letters were respectively from Beck Law, Jim White Oliver, Lisle, & J F Mcmillen, spent the evening in reading my letters & papers, of course.
A little showery. Planted corn in the forenoon at home, helped Will in the afternoon. Went over to Mr Mcdonalds claim in the evening and ploughed short time for him. Read Newspapers in evening.
A little Cool. Helped Brother Will plant corn in forenoon, took a walk down town in the afternoon, home again in the evening, had touch of the blues to-day.
Pleasant all day, a few drops of rain about noon. Took a bathe in the morning dressed up and went down to sunday school. After the Sunday school, I remained to hear the Reverend Lowry  preach. Came home after sermon & wrote two letters. Fiddled some, feel encouraged to-day.
Cloudy & a little chilly. Planted, no-hoed corn in my garden in the morning, went down town to attend meeting of Stockholder, was sec. of same, returned home, wrote & read till bedtime.
Cloudy all day, a little cool. Hoed corn and worked in garden, slept, went down to Hoovers, got my bread, returned home, hoed corn a while, read history after dark.
Rained steady but lightly all day, cleared up in the evening. Went down town to attend Stockholders meeting, was sec. of the same, bought some meat in the evening, came home about dark.
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Clear & beautiful. Worked in the garden puling weeds &c, Mr Bouser came and wanted me to go with him to find a claim, did so and returned in about an hour. Worked in garden setting out cabbage & tomato plants &c, wrote through the evening.
Clear & pleasant. Warm with good breeze all day. Planted a few rows of corn in morning, read & wrote some went down to Prentiss and got my axe ground, came home read & wrote ballance the evening.
Warm with pleasant breeze, commenced making rails to-day for my corn field, made fifty two read ballance the day. Had a call from Mr [Thomas] Russell to-day. spirits tolerably good to-day, no blues.
Clear & beautiful, a good breeze. Killed a rattle-snake in the house this morning, wrote a letter to O G Hazen and read Universal history, had a call from two strangers to-day.
Warm & pleasant. Made rails, read, fiddled, rested done nothing, built air castles had big notions of getting a woman, and played hell generally.
Rained more or less all day. Made a few rails, read history, went down town, bought some flour, took it over to Hoovers, thence to the boarding house, returned home, got as wet as possible going through the long grass.
Pleasant all day. Made a few rails, read some worked in the garden, pulled some radishes, took them down to Mrs Hoover, got some bread; returned home with Barnes, gave him some tomato plants, settled with Gilmore, tolerably good spirits to-day.
Clear but windy all day. Made rails, read, & built air castles, saw no unusual sights, heard no unusual sounds, did no unusual feats.
Warm with a good breeze. Made a few rails & spent the ballance of the day reading writing &c, sent two dollars to the New Castle Gazette to-day.
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Warm, a good breeze. Made a few rails in the forenoon, took a bathe, dressed and went to attend a meeting to organize Lyceum at the Boarding house, was appointed on committee to prepare by Laws for society, had good meeting. Came home past Hoovers, got some bread and some fish, came home, wrote a letter, read some-hold on Quaker,-forgot somthing, after meeting for Lyceum, attended stockholders meeting and a very interesting one too, I believe that is all my head is rather cloudy to-night.
Warm & south breeze, Looks like rain this evening Read some in the morning dressed up and went down town to attend Church which was to be at Alissons, got there early and sang musick a while with a few others, heard Rev. Lowry preach a sermon, afterwards went up to the boarding house, recieved a paper, returned home, read ballance the day, bought two Quire paper. Winchels saw mill arrived at Council City, (the model city) to-day. 
Rained some last Night, Cloudy & some rain this morning. Cleared up warm in the afternoon with a few scattered clouds. Threatening more rain. sprung up a high wind about dark and blue like fury and rained hard after dark. Looking like rain this morning. I did not go out to work as I intended, but sat down and read a while, mended my boots, melted some tallow and made some candles, went to the garden and weeded a while, set out cabbage tomatoes &c. Considering all things did not do bad to-day.
Warm but not oppressively so. Went over to Mcdonalds claim in the morning, with the intention of planting corn for him, finding no one there to direct thing, I went on down to Freels, found Mcdonald there, Came back with him to his Corn field & planted corn untill some time in the afternoon. Came home,
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went over to Wills, found the door locked & could not get in. Came back home, went to the garden, hoed corn a while Came to the house and read untill bed-time.
Clear & warm, rained a little Last night. the sun set under a cloud this evening, lightning and distant thunder after dark. Planted corn for Mcdonald to-day, came home in the evening, and went through the usual routine of opperations, fidling, reading, bathing &c.
Clear & pleasant all day. rained last night. Planted corn for -devil take the mosquitoes-Mcdonald Came home in afternoon, worked in garden short time, read fiddled, & fought Musquitoes which are most confounded hungry to night.
Cloudy all day, no rain but hard work to hold it up. Worked at planting corn for Mcdonald till noon, went down to Freels, sat & talked some time, thence to Hoovers, got some bread, came home, eat very hearty supper, sat down and read a while, Lay down and slept short time, got up went to the garden, set out a few tomato plants, came back to the house, read some.
Clear & pleasant. Went over to Wills in morning returned in short time, put on a pot of beans & pork to cook, also some rice, went to the garden, hoed corn a short time, back to the house, eat diner, read short time, washed up and went down town to attend meeting of Lyceum, was appointed on committee to prepare for the fourth of July Celebration, came home, fiddled, wrote, & fought musquitoes untill bed-time. dident advance very far in worldly things to day.
Beautiful all day. Read some in the morning, dressed and went to church to the boarding house, had no sermon in forenoon but sunday school instead. At two OClock Rev. Morell preached a sermon, stayed and heard him, after which stayed and sang a while with the choir practising with the view of singing at fourth of July. Came home in evening, read & fiddled ballance the day.
Clear & pleasant with south breeze. Slept most of the forenoon, hoed corn some, went over to Dragoon creek with committee of
DIARY OF JAMES R. STEWART 17
arrangements for fourth of July Celebration, looked out the ground on which to hold it, made some other arrangements & returned home Stopping short time on the way at the boarding house, at Freels, & at Hoovers, got some bread there, read bathed and went to bed.
Warm with a high breeze. Hoed corn & read alternately all day. tolerably good spirits to-day.
Warm & south breeze all day. Hoed corn in the morning, went to town in afternoon, bought some butter, came home.
Clear warm & good south breeze. Lay awake all last night building air castles. Took a resolution to assume new vigor in the prosecution of worldly schemes. and in obedience to this resolution I got up very early and immediately proceeded to the garden, and worked there till the sun was about half an hour high, returned to the house, eat breakfast, and started out to make one hundred rails, worked about two hours when getting dry I went to the house & Frank Smith calling in about that time, and after talking with him a short time the fever of doing big days work left me.
Warm & Clear in forenoon, scattered Clouds in afternoon, rain in evening Made forty two rails in the morning, went down to Freels, thence to the boarding house, recieved three paper[s], one of the first No, of the weekly tribune, paid one years postage on it in advance, went thence to Hoovers, got a loaf of bread, came home, sat down and read newspapers ballance of the day.
Pleasant all day. Made 92 rails and did sundry other work, such as working in the garden, fighting musquitoes and bathing. all things considered did not do bad to-day.
Clear & beautiful all day. Read faithfully, finished reading Universal history, (Olneys.) & commenced reading Tom Paine, in the spirit world by Rev C Hammond,  also read some in
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bible. wrote a notice for a meeting of the citizens to inquire into the affairs of the American Set. Co.
Pleasant with good breeze. Went over to Dragoon in the morning and worked at making preperations for fourth of July celebrations. Came home past Hoovers & got some bread, the first drawing for Council City Lots occured to-day, did not draw mine.
Clear in the forenoon, scattered Clouds in the afternoon, a few drops of rain in the evening. Went over to Dragoon Creek, stopped short time at Rices,  worked at puting tip a table for fourth of July dinner, W [arren] N Haven was with me, I went over with him to Mr. [William] Lords & took dinner there, returned and worked untill towards evening came home, stopping few minutes at Boarding house & at Titus'. fiddled bathed && fought musquitoes.
Scattered Clouds, a few drops of rain but temperature pleasant. This is my first fourth of July in Kansas. Dressed up in the morning, & went to the celebration ground. Being on committee of arrangement I went to work preparing for diner (a free diner) provisions haveing been prepared and brought by the Ladies in attendance, worked at this untill the exercises of the day commenced, which consisted of music by the Choir, prayer by the Rev. Lowery, breif address and reading declaration of independence by Edmund Fish Esq. An oration by Dr Kerr, a Poem by M C Haven. Free collation & a multitude of toasts and host of other entertainments, after the assembly dispersed I came home by the boarding house and recieved two letters and some papers, am much pleased with this days experience.
Fine shower this morning, pleasant but Cloudy through the day. Read newspapers in forenoon, went down town in the afternoon went to the boarding house, settled with Lotan Smith, paid five dollars for T P Woodruff and five for I N Beatie to A. M. Set Co. recieved two letters and a pamphelet, one of the letters containing power of Att from J A Addis & Tom Marshall to
DIARY OF JAMES R. STEWART 19
one, the other was from Jim White. came home & answered Whites letter.
Pleasant all day. Made some stakes & forks, read and wrote a letter to E S McLeary Fee [I] Lonesome, wish I was back in Old Pennsylvania.
Pleasant, a good breeze. Wrote letters all forenoon, went to the Lyceum in afternoon; was sec. was appointed on committee to prepare a report of fourth of July celebration for publication, recieved some papers Came home past Titus' & bought a jug of vinegar from Gilmore went from Titus' to Freels and bought a peice of Liver & some flour. left the [flour?] at Hoovers and came on home Read Tribune through the evening.
Temperatuer 95 with good breeze. Went over to Wills in the morning; returned, then down to Freels, thence to Tituss, thence to Hoovers, got some bread, back home, read ballance the day.
Rained Last night, a good breeze, warm to-day. Made some stakes & forks, got done about 10 OClock, slept read & did nothing ballance the day. Finished reading Paine in the spirit world & commenced reading Pollocks Course of time. 
Warm in the forenoon, a fine shower in the evening, heavy thunder. Lightning & rain after dark. Made stakes & forkes short time Went over to Wills in the forenoon carried his bed over to my cabin, he coming a long to stay with me. Went down town to meet Messrs Rose & Haven to prepare a report of fourth of July celebration for publication, Haven not appearing I went to the Post-office recieved two letters. Started for home but had to stop at Freels on account of the rain, read my letters while there, came home about dark, eat super, reread my letters, bathed & went to bed.
Warm, scattered Clouds. Worked at my stake making short time, wrote a letter, went down town, stoped at Freels, thence to the boarding house, thence to Hoovers, got some fish & some milk, had a call from Lotan Smith to day.
20 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY
Warm in the forenoon, cloudy and signs of rain in the evening. Had a call from Mrs Yourig in the morning, went with her to Allisons, returned home read, worked in garden &c
Clear & warm all day. Made a few stakes and cut forks, went down to Hoovers, got some bread, thence to the post-office recieved one letter, thence to Freels, then home, read course of time.
Warm, scattered clouds, thunder no rain. Went out in the morning to make stakes, cut some stuff for them but split none, came back to the house & trifled away the ballance of the day.
Warm with good south breeze. Read all day, finished reading Pollocks course of time, and commenced Tomsons seasons. 
Warm with good south breeze. Killed a rattle snake this morning in the garden, made one hundred & six stakes & 26 forks hoed some in the garden, read some, went over to Wills cabin got some things there and returned.
Warm a good breeze. Made stakes & forks, wrote a letter, read bathed fidled &c.
Warm with good south breeze, Made a few stakes, went down town, got some Flour, took it to Hoovers, thence to the boarding house, attended stockholders meeting thence home had mush & milk for supper.
Warm. A fine shower at Hoovers in the afternoon but none at home, Clouds thunder & lightning in evening. Read some in the morning, Went down town, stopped at Titus's, thence to Brattons after a keg, dident get it, thence to Hoovers, remained there while it rained, got some bread and some butter, came home, finished reading Tomsons seasons & commenced Cowpers task,  had call from N Schuyler. 
DIARY OF JAMES R. STEWART 21
Cloudy all day but no rain, Went up to the boarding house to attend the drawing of Council City Lots, remained there all day and attended stockholders meetting in the evening, was elected member of local board of trustees. bout sack flour in evening came home, read.
Cloudy & rainy nearly all day, rained some last night. Lay back & read most the day, finished reading Cowpers task and commenced Gertrude of Wyoming,  went down to Hoovers in the afternoon, thence to Freels & paid for some flour, came back home past Hoovers and got a loaf of bread.
Warm with broken clouds. Lay back and read, had a call from Mr Mcdonald & Plumb. Mcdonald stayed all night finished reading Gertrude of Wyoming, had a great deal of talk with Mr Mcdonald on religion and other things.
little cloudy in the forenoon, Clear & warm in the afternoon. Mended my boots in the morning went over with Mr Mcdonald to his claim, thence to Hoovers, thence to Freels, thence back to Hoovers, got some bread, & home, cleared out a road through the timber to haul my rails out on, read in the evening.
Warm in the forenoon, Clouds and thunder and threatning of rain in the afternoon Worked in the garden in the morning, hauled rails in the afternoon, read in the evening. Mr Mcdonald is with me to-day & to-night.
Warm with scattered clouds. Hauled rails in the forenoon, attended Lyceum at the boarding house. to-day the first debate in the Pioneer Institute occured, the question was, should Kansas in the formation of a state government exclude Free negroes, I was on the negative, after the meeting ajourned, came home, past Hoovers & got some bread.
Clear & warm all day. Wrote a letter in the forenoon to J. Ferris Mcmillen, went down to Hoovers and copied the record of the temperature of the weather in July and enclosed it in
22 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY
Ferris's letter. the afternoon. Came home, read & built air castles. 
Clear & very warm with a good breeze. Fought musquitoes nearly all night last night and slept late this morning. Mr Mcdonald came up and we hauled the ballance of my rails out, after which we sat & talked on different subjects untill towards evening, when he left & I took a walk over to Wills house, found no one there, came home, fiddled built air castles bathed & went to bed.
Wrote a letter in the morning to Miss M. J. Morrison, had a call from Mr Stanley, went over to Dr Kerrs in the afternoon to attend a meeting of the board of trustees, got home about dark.
Clear && pleasant all day. Went to Church, heard the Rev. Lowry preach a sermon on war, stoped short time at Freels. Dr Toothman came home with me, Went out in the evening to show him a claim. George Young called in about dark, stoped short time, read some in the bible, wrote took general bathe & went to bed.
Cloudy, thunder & lightning in the morning but no rain. Clear & warm through the midle of the day, heavy wind thunder lightning & strong appearance of rain in the evening. Washed some clothes in the morning, studied and wrote on debate for Lyceum, the question being, resolved that Women should exercise the elective franchise. I wrote four pages of foolscap, have a very sore foot, think its poisoned.
Terific thunder & lightning and a fine shower last night, Clear pleasant with a fine breeze. Went up to Youngs in the morn
DIARY OF JAMES R. STEWART 23
ing to draw the water out of his well in order to get my mattock which was buried in the water, worked a while at it and quit for a bad job. Came home went down to Freels, thence to Brattons, thence to Hoovers, took super there, thence home, sang, fiddled on three strings, read wrote & went to bed.
Clear & warm with a good breeze all day. Got up in the night last night and commenced reading Youngs nights thoughts,  read and hour or two, slept late this morning, studied & wrote on debate for Lyceum in forenoon, went to town in afternoon, took Mrs Bratton some cucumbers, went from there to Freels, stayed there most the afternoon, came to Hoovers, got my bread, and home, read night thoughts.
Clear & warm all day. Went out in the morning to build fence, worked at it some time, quit and read a while, had call from Toothman, also one from [John E.] Gould, he stayed all night.
Clear & very warm. Went out in the morning and put up a few pannel of fence came back to the house, & read till towards evening, worked some more at my fence, read through the evening.
Warm, temperature 91, scattered clouds through the day, a light shower at dark, thunder lightning & threatning for more at night. Went down to the Post-office. & waited all day expecting the Santa-fee stages with the Council City mail. it did not come, so I went over to Hoovers, and eat the first Watermelon in Kansas there, came home and read as usual, money out of pocket to-day.
Some rain last night, cloudy this morning, cleared off about 10 OClock, warm ballance the day. Had a call from Mr Roscoe in the morning, went down to the Post-Office in forenoon, remained at Freels remainder of the day, got no mail, came home in the evening, Mr Mcdonald came with me, spent the evening talking on religion &C.
24 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY
Pleasant all day. Went over with Mr Mcdonald in the morning to his claim for the purpose of helping him to mark the lines arround it. after lookink over it, and having no compass we concluded to defer it to another time, Went from there to Hoovers taking them some cucumbers, & thence to Freels with some green corn, thence to the Post-office and recieved 9 letters and six newspapers the letters Were respectively from Miss Mary Craven, Miss R. L. Law, J W Johnston, De Cossit, J. S. White, 0 G Hazen, R C Leslie & J P Woodruff, also a piece of music from Ebb Sanky, Mr Johnston letter contained a Check for 20,00, one of O G Hazen a receit from New Castle Gazette. after recieving this glorious big mail I came home past Hoovers & got a loaf of bread, read my letters all over & glanced at my papers, eat diner and Went to work at my fence, Worked a while & returned to the house, reread my letters & some more in my papers, Worked some more & read till all most mid night.
Pleasant, scattered clouds a few drops of rain in the afternoon. Worked at my fence a while in the morning, went down to Freels, thence to Post-office, recieved 4 papers, eat diner at Freels, had new potatoes, came home, read & worked at fence alternately till dark, read papers till late in the night.
Fine rain in the forenoon, Clear & pleasant in the afternoon. Slept nearly all forenoon, read, some, went to attend Lyceum at the Boarding house in the afternoon, debated on the Neg. of the question-resolved that weomen should exercise the elective franchise. Came home & read through the evening.
A gentle but constant rain all day. Wrote three letters, read newspapers ballance the day.
Cloudy in morn. Clear in evening, Worked at my fence and read alternately all day, wrote a letter in the evening, had a call from Jim Miller, he stayed all night.
Rained a little in the morning. Clear through the day, a fine shower in the evening, heavy thunder Lightning & rain after dark. Wrote a letter in the forenoon, went down town, stopped some
DIARY OF JAMES R. STEWART 25
time at Allisons, Went thence to Hoovers, got some bread and home read fidled &C as usual.
Showery all day, heavy thunder & lightning, Wrote three letters, this was about all I did. saw a wild-cat near the house in the evening.
Clear & pleasant in the forenoon showery in the afternoon. Worked at my fence in the morning, took 8 letters down to the post office, stopped a while at Freels, came home in the eve.
Cloudy & a little rain, Worked short time at my fence, washed dressed & went down town, stopped at boarding house, thence home, read &C through the evening.
Scattered clouds, a few drops of rain. Had a call from Mr. Amy Smith in the morning, Went down town With him, stayed there untill towards evening, came home, Johnston Mclntyere came With me & stayed all night.
A fine rain in the forenoon, Clear & pleasant in the afternoon. Lay back and read in forenoon, Helped Dr Toothman raise cabin in afternoon.
Clear & pleasant, cool in the morning. Finished reading night thoughts and commenced reading Miltons Paridise Lost. finished fencing my corn in the afternoon, read through the evening.
Pleasant all day. Cut some grass in the morning to fill my bed with, Went to the garden & got some corn for Todds, & some for Mclntiere, Went down to Dr Kerrs to attend meeting of the board, Johnston Mcintire accompaning me as far as town, stopped at Todds & took diner, came back to Freels, stoped and stayed all night to set up With Geo. Young Who Was very low with fever, he died between 9 & 10 0 Clock, helped to dress him & sat up ballance of the night. 
26 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY
Pleasant all day. Came home from Freels early in the morning, got breakfast, read a short time, Lay down & slept till about 11 OClock, dressed and went down to attend the funeral, heard the Rev. Lowry preach a funeral sermon, came home past Hoovers & got a Loaf of bread, Youngs funeral was the first I ever attended in Kansas.
Clear & pleasant, a good breeze. Went down town & Loafed round all day, wrote a letter for Freel to the Mayor of Easton, Pa, telling him about the death of Geo. Young who came from that place, took diner at Freels, came home in the evening, fidled & read balance the eve.
Cloudy & rainy nearly all day. Commenced diging for water on the bank of the creek in the morning. worked but little it commencing to rain, Lay up and read ballance the day.
Cloudy in the morning, cleared up about nine oClock, pleasant the remainder of the day. Lay up and read in the fornoon, went to attend Lyceum in the afternoon, had a good meeting, went to the Post-office, recieved one paper, the 1st No of my New-Castle Gazette, came home past Hoovers and got some bread.
Clear & warm all day. Went over to Mr Lords to attend his little daughters funeral, was one of the pall bearers, came home in the evening, pulled my first ripe Water Melon-weighed 21 Lbs & most Luscious, finished reading Miltons paridise Lost, read some in the bible.
Clear & pleasant. Had a call from Rev Shaw & Mr Dalton of New Mexico early in the morning, their object being to buy Wells Claim, went with them to see it, came back & went down to Freels, expecting to go to Kansas [City] with Mr Mcdonald, did not, remained and went to church in the afternoon heard Rev [Samuel S.] Snyder preach, attended a meeting of the citezens to see about settling up the buissiness of Geo. Youngdeceased, in the evening, was chosen administrator came home & read through the evening as usual.
DIARY OF JAMES R. STEWART 27
Scatered clouds, pleasant. Went down to Freels in the morning, intending to go up to Harveys to attend to the appraisement of Geo. Youngs property, found that Messrs Hoover & Freel who were to go along were already gone, so I concluded not to go, remained down town and attended a political meeting, thence to Hoovers, eat some watermelons, got some bread & some butter, thence home, fiddled, read, & fought mosquitoes, the ballance of the evening.
Misty in the morning, scattered clouds, and clear in the evening. Read & eat Water melons all day, wrot some verses to Mary Newel in the evening expected a call from some Ladies.
Misty in the morning, clear & pleasant through the day. Went down town & attended to George Youngs affairs, settling accts &C. Came home in the evening, Charley Linkinager [C. N. Linkenauger] came with me.
Heavy fog and distillations of dew in the morning, clear & pleasant in the afternoon, Remained at home with Charley, a while in the morning. Bill Smith called and told me that Brother Will was worse, went up to see him, found him very sick, sent Smith after the Dr, & remained with Will till the Dr came, came back home riding Wills Pony, filled a [betick?] in the evening read Popes works after dark.
Clear & beautiful all day. Went down to Freels in the morning and got his horses & Plumbs waggon and went up to Youngs cabin with Charley Linkinager after Brother Will, brought him down to my house and waited on him through the day, went down to the store in the evening and got some wine & peruvian bark, also some milk at Freels, came home, got Will Smith to stay with me, am going to set up with Brother to-night, he is very bad. The Dr thinks he will not live, he called to see him to-day.
Warm in the morning, a light shower about noon, clear in the evening. Went to the Boarding house after my syringe in the morning, got it and came to Freels, got a chicken for Will, thence to Hoovers, got some bread, thence home, worked about
28 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY
the house waiting on William &C. Will died about half past eleven OClock, sent Will Smith to get help to dress him. Mr Hoover & Jim Bothel  came & attended to it. Smith went to see about getting a coffin made, grave dug & shroud made, Mr Hoover remained with [me] untill towards evening & then went home, Smith came back soon after and also Jim Bothel about dark. am setting up to-night with my last Brother for the last time. what luck is to be meted out to me?
Clear & warm all day. Dressed up in the morning and prepared for Wills funeral, which was to occur at eleven OClock but on account of detention in making the coffin, did not occur untill about five in the evening, consequently did not get through till after dark, went down to Mr Brattons after the funeral and stayed there all night.
SAT. 1. Warm, scattered clouds. Came from Mr Brattons in the morning to Freels, remained there all day settling up George Youngs accounts, bought a piece of fresh beef in the evening, came home about dark, Bill Smith came with me.
Clear & warm all day. Went down town in the morning and remained there untill afternoon, went over to Lords to set up with Cort. Haven  who is very low with Typhoid fever, arrived there about sun-down, set up untill 12 oClock, left and came over to Freels, got there about 1 oClock, remained there all night.
Clear & warm. Got up early in the morning, and found my Pony gone, Learned that Dr Bowin had taken it, waited untill he returned, went home and done chores about the house, for some time, returned to Freels to attend to selling George Youngs effects, had an auction sale, sold a few things, came home in t[h]e evening with Mr Mcdonald & Will Smith had a spree on Water Mellon.
Clear, A good breeze. Washed clothes all day. Loaned fifteen dollars to Mr Wright 
DIARY OF JAMES R. STEWART 29
Clear & pleasant. Dident feel very well this morning, Lay down after breakfast & slept an hour or two, got up and started out to hunt my Pony, could not find it, came back to the house, went to the garden, gathered some tomatoes and took them down to Mrs. Hoover, found the Pony down there, went over to Freels, thence to the Post-office, recieved five letters & 9 papers, came home & read my letters & papers.
Scattered clouds, warm. Washed clothes in the forenoon, went up to Youngs cabin in the afternoon and got some things that William had left there, came home and read ballance the day.
Warm & sultry. Took some tomatoes down to Freels in the morning, remained there some time, recieved a letter from Alf Addis by the hand of P. O. Conver,  Came home very sick with fever & head-ache, went to bed.
Warm & Sultry. Lay up and read in the forenoon, went down to Freels in the afternoon, came home past Hoovers, took supper there.
Warm, scattered clouds. did Chores about the house some, got sick & lay in bed nearly all day, terrible high fever, think I'm going to be sick.
Pleasant all day. Felt better in the morning. got on my Pony and rode down to Dr Kerrs and got some medicine went thence to [John R.] Caziers, stopped an hour or two, thence to the Boarding house to attend stockholders meeting Got very sick while there & had to go to bed and stay there untill morning.
Felt some better, got my Pony and started for home, was sick before I got there, tumbled into bed & lay there very sick, not able to get up.
30 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY
Warm, scattered clouds. Tried to get up in the morning, couldent do it. Lay in bed all day, desperate sick, no one near me.
A little Cloudy. Had a call from Mr Dalton in the morning, felt some better, got up and eat a little, got on the Pony and went down to Alisons after some medicine, took sick about the time I got there, and had to stop, went to bed and lay there all night.
Warm & Sultry. Felt some better in the morning, got my Pony and rode home, had a call from Mr Dalton, went over to take diner with him, and his wife, took sick while there and had to hurry home, Lay in bed from then till next morning sick as could get to be.
Rained a little in the morning, pleasant through the day. Took a bathe in the morning, went down to Alisons with the view of stoping there a few days till get better, had chill & fever in the evening.
Heavy rain last night, occasional rain and clouds through the day. Read a little in morning, had chills & fever in the afternoon, took 20 Gr Quinine to-day.
Pleasant, south breeze. Came home in the morning and remained there all day, had no fever, read newspapers, think the quinine has done a good work for me.
Warm, with south breeze. Stephen Smith stayed with me last night having called after I went to bed, felt better, wrote a letter, had a call from Mrs Dalton, also from Mr Gould.
Rained in the morning, scattered clouds through the day. Lay up and read all day. Had a call from Mr Dalton, & one from a fellow by the name of Tom Hill.
Warm & south breeze. Took a good bathe in the morning, went to Hoovers, thence to Alisons, took diner there, thence to Brat-
DIARY OF JAMES R. STEWART 31
tons, thence to Prentises, got half bushel corn meal, thence home, read Paines age of reason 
Warm but good south breeze. Chored about the house fixing the beds &C. Went down to Alisons in the evening, got some butter, thence to Hoovers, got some milk, thence hom had firstrate super on mush & milk.
Clear & pleasant. Went out in the morning to make rails for a calf pen, worked short time, found it rather hard work, quit and came to the house, read through the greater part of the day, had a call from Hoge,  paid him for making Williams coffin, went down to Alisons, got Mr Mcdonald on my Pony and started him for my house, I went past Hoovers, and got some bread, & punkin pies, got home about sun-down, Mr Mcdonald stayes with me to-night.
Warm, scattered Clouds, a few drops of rain. Lay back reading, wrote 4 letters.
Clear & pleasant. Went at making some more rails for my calf pen. Dave Condit  came in a short time, so I quit work and set in the house & talked to him & Mr Mcdonald untill towards evening. Went down to Hoovers, thence to Titus' after some butter, got none, thence to Brattons, got none there, thence back to Hoovers got some milk, then home, had mush & milk for supper.
A fine rain last night, clear & pleasant to-day. Finished making rails for calf pen, and built the pen, had a call from Mr [Frederick C.] Upsom he had a shake while here, cut up some corn in the evening.
Clear & Cool. Went out in the morning to cut corn, worked at it a short time, had a call from Mr Joy, who came to notify me of a meeting of the board of trustees, quit work and went to attend the board meeting, remained there all day, paid Dr
32 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY
Kerrs bill for attending William, got cloth for a pair of pants from J Byers.
Clear Cool & pleasant. Cut Corn a while in the morning, went down to Prentiss' after Mcdonalds cow & calf. tried to drive them home, could not do it. Left them at Prints, stopped there till after diner, thence to Allisons, got some flour & took it over to Hoovers, brought my rifle and Geo Youngs shot gun home from freels, found Dalton there, made a bargain with him to bring the cow & calf up from Prentiss's to-morrow morning.
Cloudy. Cool. Went down in the morning after the cow. Dalton did not go as I expected, took a shake while at Prentiss' and had to give up the idea of bringing home the contrary cow & calf. Came home late in the evening feel rather slim.
Rained last night, cloudy and cool through the day. Went over to Daltons in the morning, took a shake while there, husseled home. Lay up ballance of the day. Cousin William Stewart from Illinoise came in about dark, havent seen him for four years before to-night.
Rained lightly last night also this forenoon. Took a shake early in the morning and Lay up ballance the day. Cousin Will rode around some alone, too sick to go with him, dam this ague.
Cloudy & sunshin alternately Had more fever & ague to-day, got Mr Mcdonald to go after some quinine and butter, took some of bothe when he got back. Cousin Will Left this morning for Lawrence. the Ruffians held and election to-day to elect delegate to Congress. 
Clear with high west breeze. Had a very hard shake to-day. felt better in the evening, a pair of some-bodys oxen broke into my corn, took the shot gun out and shot them with beans.
DIARY OF JAMES R. STEWART 33
Windy. Cool Fever and ageu as usual. was in bed nearly all day.
Some rain last night, cool to-day. Got the Ageu broke to-day had no chill.
Cloudy & cool. Felt better, went out and cut some corn, went down to the Post-office in the evening, recieved 8 letters and a bundle of papers, Came home & read my letters & papers.
A good breeze. Cut corn part of the day, took Mcdonalds oxen, which have been up here for a few days, down town, got some bread at Hoovers, came home thence to Daltons, back home read newspapers.
Went out in the morning to cut corn. Mr Mcdonald was with me, worked at it a short time when the two Mr Roses called, quit work and entertained my visitors till eve 
Warm & dry. Went over to Daltons in the morning. thence down the Creek to hunt Mcdonalds oxen, could not find them, came home, husked and carried in corn ballance of the day.
Warm-very warm. Called over to see Daltons in the morning who were both sick, cut them some wood, returned home, carried up some corn. This is election day for delegate to Congress, went to the polls & voted for A H Reeder,  went to Prentiss' got some butter, came home and read & wrote.
Clear & high wind. Went over to Daltons, found them very sick, thence to attend meeting of boad of trustees. had good time, thence after Mcdonalds oxen, did not get them came home & brought some bread & potatoes up to Daltons.
34 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY
Clear & warm. Went over to Daltons, did some chores for them, thence after Mcdonalds oxen, found them and brought them home with the waggon, hauled up some rails & built a corn crib, hauled up One load of corn.
Hauled up one load of corn, got sick, Lay in bed ballance the day, went over to Daltons in the evening. found them still sick.
Warm. Hague & fever, Lay up all day.
Warm, a light breeze. Felt some better this morning, yoked up the oxen and hauled a load of wood. Lay up the remainder of the day, had a call from Dalton, helped him take over his cow.
Warm & pleasant. Still more ague. Lay up.
Pleasant. Some better to-day, went down town in the waggon, got some quinine, and some bread, came home, took a chill. Felt angry, cursed Mr Mcdonald and went to bed, mad.
Clear & pleasant. Went over to Daltons, sold him my corn, engaged to board with him, returned home, took Quinine Lay up rest of the day, Mr Mcdonald left for Kansas city to-day.
Windy through the day, rain in the night. Not well yet, read newspapers through the day, had a piece of fresh beef sent me in the evening by Mrs Dalton, sent to Kansas [City] for some apples some onions & pair of boots.
Warm, scattered clouds. Shaved, bathed, put on a clean shirt, took my gun and went after my Pony which I have missed for several days, shot a snake, got very tired, came home, did not find my Pony, rested ballance the day.
Cloudy, a few drops of rain. Felt pretty well this morning, tinkered a long time at my guns, arranged at the accounts of Geo. Young some, read some, in the bible, rained considerable in the evening.
DIARY OF JAMES R. STEWART 35
Cold & windy. Drove a lot of catle out of my corn, went over to Daltons, stopped a few minutes, came home, spent the day reading, Hill came over two or three times.
Rained considerable in the morning, pleasant in the evening. Went down to Hoovers, remained there during the rain, got a [loaf of] bread. came home. Went over to Daltons. Got yoke of cattle and wagon, came back with Hill to get some corn out of my field.
Very cold & windy. Sat by the fire all day & read.
Clear & cool pleasant in the afternoon. Went down town to attend meeting of board of trustees,-a quorum not being present no meeting was held, remained till afternoon for the Lyceum, attended it, from thence came to Prentiss's, got some butter, thence to Hoovers, ground some corn on his hand mill, got a loaf of bread, and home.
A little cool, rather windy. Husked corn greater part the day, read philosophy some.
Pleasant, a good breeze. Husked corn, read some philosophy, gathered some beans.
Pleasant, a little warm, some breeze, Washed clothes in the forenoon, went down town in the afternoon, bought some coffee, went over to Prentiss', settled with him, thence to Hoovers, got some bread, came home through Cleavelands turnip patch and got some turnips, eat a hearty supper on beans & pork recieved a letter to-day.
Clear, warm & pleasant. Had call from Mr Dalton in the morning, went home with him, had glass of hot toddy, sat a while, returned, wrote letters ballance the day.
Clear, rather windy in evening. Gathered & hulled hazelnuts most the day, picked a few beans.
36 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY
Warm & pleasant untill near evening, blew up windy and continued so all night. Went over to Daltons in the morn, to help him yoke up his oxen, got it done with some trouble, had a glass of hot toddy, brought the oxen over to my corn field, hitched them to my waggon which had been left there, hauled the waggon over to Daltons, came home, gathered some beans, had chill & fever after dark.
Hallow eve. Rather windy all day. Made preperation to attend meeting of the board of trustees, felt too sick to leave the house, stayed at home, read a little, lay in bed most the day, sent for some medicine, got not, Lord! how I wish I was out of this.
1. The Kansas Herald of Freedom, Wakarusa (Lawrence), October 21, 1864. George W. Brown, editor and publisher of the newspaper, was also president of the Western Pennsylvania company.
2. Letters of C. K. Holliday, December 25, 1854, and G. W. Brown, February 27, 1855, in ibid., March 3, 1865.
3. J. M. Winchell, Experiences in Kansas Territory, 1854-1855 (untitled manuscript), pp. 9, 15, 19, 32, 35, 36, 48, in the Manuscript division, Kansas Historical Society.
4. Ibid., p. 37 ff.
5. Ibid., pp. 40-42, 77.
6. Report of the Adjutant Ge
7. The Osage Chronicle, Burlingame, May 2, 9, June 20, 1868.
8. The Great Harmonia; Being a Philosophical Revelation of the Natural, Spiritual, and Celestial Universe, by Andrew Jackson Davis. Davis was a young shoemaker's apprentice in Poughkeepsie, N. Y., who claimed to have remarkable clairvoyant powers. In 1845, when he was 19, he dictated, while in a "magnetic sleep," The Principles of Nature, Her Divine Revelations, and a Voice of Mankind, which was published as a single bulky volume. It attracted considerable attention and Davis subsequently produced several other works, all supposedly written under the influence of spirits from the other world, including The Great Harmonia. National Cyclopedia of American Biography (New York, 1898), v. 8, p. 442.
9. William A. Stewart, the diarist's brother, was a silversmith, according to the 1855 census. He died of consumption in August. See diary entry for August 30, 1855.
10. Probably Phebe Payne, who is listed in the census of 1855, with her six minor children, as emigrating from Illinois. Isaac D. Earll is not listed in the census, but was one of the signers of a protest against the election of March 30 (see Footnote 15) and served as a clerk at the election of May 22.-Territorial election returns, Archives division, Kansas Historical Society. P. Baysinger, a farmer, had come from Iowa with his wife, one grown son, and seven minor children. Henry Smith, who may have been a son of Lotan, was a tinner. Mrs. Howard probably was the wife of William Howard, a member of the original Pennsylvania party. Armi Smith, who is consistently called "Amy" by Stewart, was an early settler on Plum creek, south of present Burlingame.
11. Ithiel and Laura R. Streit, with their son George, had come from Pennsylvania. Ithiel was a carpenter.
12. Emma Hart Willard (1787-1870) was one of the great educators of her day. She is credited with being the first woman publicly to advocate higher education for her sex and the first to prove in her own school that women were capable of mastering mathematics, philosophy and other serious studies without harmful effects upon their brains and nervous systems, Dictionary of American Biography (New York, 1936), v. 20, pp. 231-233. The volume which Stewart mentions here was probably her System of Universal History in Perspective, first published in 1835.
13. Arthur I. Baker, a farmer from Iowa, was justice of the peace in the eighth election district, in which Council Grove was located when the 1855 census was taken. "Printiss" was Alfonso Prentice (or Prentis), also an Iowa farmer.
14. J. D. Skidmore, an emigrant from Missouri, is listed as a merchant in the 1855 census.
15. Hiram J. Strickler was a surveyor from Virginia who subsequently played a prominent part in Kansas affairs during the territorial period and the early years of statehood. At the election of March 30, 1855, he was chosen to represent the 3d, 7th and 8th districts in the council. Mobillon W. McGee was elected to the house of representatives from the 7th district, which included Council City. Several residents of Council City, including Stewart, on March 31 sent a written protest to Governor Reeder, stating that Strickler and McGee were elected by nonresident Missourians in opposition to the wishes of the legal voters of the district. Reeder ordered a new election, which was held on May 22. Jesse D. Wood was elected to the council.-Territorial election returns, Archives division, Kansas Historical Society. It was Wood who located, surveyed and platted the townsite of Brownville in 1856. The name of the town was changed to Auburn by vote of the citizens in 1857 and by act of the legislature in 1859.-D. W. Wilder, The Annals of Kansas (Topeka, 1886), pp. 60-62; A. T. Andress, and W. G. Cutler, History of the State of Kansas (Chicago, 1883), pp. 595, 1530. Andrews states that Hollam Rice received all 28 votes for representative from the 7th district on May 22 but that when the legislature met it excluded him and admitted McGee.
16. Samuel A. Allison was a member of the original party from Pennsylvania but is not listed in the 1855 census.-Andreas-Cutler, op. cit., p. 1530.
17. Marcus H. Rose was a stonemason who came from Pennsylvania with the original party. He was justice of the peace for the Council City district.
18. The American Manual has not been definitely identified. Jesse Olney (1798-1872) was a well-known Connecticut educator and author. In collaboration with John W. Barber he wrote The Family Book of History; Comprising a Concise View of the Most Interesting and Important Events in the History of All the Civilized Nations of the Earth . . . . which was published at Philadelphia in 1839.
19. The Rev. John Lowry was sent out by the American Missionary Society, and for three months held meetings regularly at the cabins of various settlers. These were the first regular religious services in the county.-Andreas-Cutler, op. cit., p. 1531.
20. After selecting his homestead at the junction of Switzler and Dragoon creeks and assisting in the laying-out of the Council City townsite in October, 1854, James M. Winchell had returned to New York. There he found that he had been made a director of the American Settlement Company. He had no high opinion of some of the men connected with the company, and resolved not to take any "responsible part" in its management. He did plan to return to Kansas, settle on the farm he had chosen, and also operate a portable saw-mill and sell lumber to the other settlers. The company encouraged him in this project, and advertised that a mill would be in operation in the spring of 1855. It was shipped on February 3 from New York, but was so long delayed on the way that it did not reach Council City until June. It was never successful, because it was too small and light to handle the tough oak and walnut of the vicinity.-Winchell, loc. cit., pp. 72-77.
21. The Rev. C. Hammond, medium, Light From the Spirit World. The Pilgrimage of Thomas Paine, and Others to the Seventh Circle in the Spirit World (Rochester and New York, 1852), 264p.
22. Holism Rice located on Dragoon creek in 1854. He was one of those who signed the protest against the election of March 30. At the special election on May 22 he was elected to the house of representatives from the 7th district but was refused a seat by the legislature in favor of M. W. McGee.
23. Robert Pollok (1798-1827), a Scottish clergyman, was described by a biographer as "the greatest Christian poet of the century." The Course of Time was a heroic poem in ten books embracing the "whole history and final doom" of mankind. It went through at least fifteen American editions before 1850.
24. The Seasons is the best known work of the Scottish poet James Thomson (1700-1748).
25. William Cowper (1731-1800), English poet.
26. N. Schuyler was Nicholas P. B. Schuyler, one of the incorporators of the Burlingame Town Company in 1868.-Andreas-Cutler, op. cit., p. 1533.
27. Thomas Campbell (1777-1844), a Scotch poet, wrote Gertrude of Wyoming; A Pennsylvania Tale in 1809. It is described as the story in verse of the "desolation of Wyoming, in Pennsylvania, which took place in 1778, by an incursion of the Indians."
28. Stewart's "air castles" were shared by others. A "Member of Settlement Company," roused by the exaggerated stories told of Council City, wrote to The National Era of Washington, D. C., on August 15: "In the Era of August 2d, I notice a paragraph on the American Settlement in Kansas, named Council City, stating we have 1,500 inhabitants, a saw-mill, post office, Sabbath-school, hundreds of acres in crops, &c. Such statements, I think, are wrong; for, when people arrive, they find it different, and many of our best settlers leave in disappointment. . . The inhabitants, instead of being 1,500, as stated, I think, would not be more than 500 within ten miles, and as yet not one building on the city proper. A saw-mill we have, but it is not yet running, but hope it will be soon. A post office we have, with a regular monthly mail, with an occasional one between. A Sabbath-school was organized last spring, but is abandoned for the present, on account of sickness, which, I think, was mostly brought on by exposure and change of diet. The number of acres in crops, (or corn,) perhaps, is correct; but the most of it was planted late, and on the prairie sod, and of course we cannot expect a full crop. The most of the settlers are putting in a few acres of wheat."-The National Era, October 25, 1855.
29. Edward Young (1683-1765), English poet and clergyman. The Complaint, or Night Thoughts on Life, Death and Immortality is his chief work.
30. Of this period J. M. Winchell wrote that heavy midsummer rains were "followed by the general prostration of all the people in my neighborhood by the ague. From the rolling character of the country, we had vainly fancied ourselves free from this malarial scourge; but the rains of August were very heavy, and the people drank the water of the creeks, and lived largely on milk."-Winchell Ms., loc. cit., pp. 81, 82.
31. James Bothel was one of the original Pennsylvania party which arrived in November, 1854.
32. Cortez Haven is the M. C. Haven mentioned in the entry for July 4. He died some time after this entry was written. Herald of Freedom, November 17, 1855.
33. Probably Devilla Wright, a young farmer originally from Iowa.
34. Conver had emigrated with the Western Pennsylvania Kansas party in 1854. For several months he had been working as a compositor in the office of the Herald of Freedom at Lawrence. An announcement in that paper on July 14, 1855, stated that he was planning to publish a weekly newspaper at Council City, to be called the Council City Banner, beginning September 1. So far as is known, this journal never materialized.
35. Tom Paine (1737-1809), political pamphleteer of the American Revolution, wrote The Age of Reason during 1794-1796 while he was living in France. It has been called the "atheists' bible," though Paine was a deist and not an atheist, and most of the ideas expressed are more or less commonplace today.
36. W. H. Hogue was a cabinetmaker, originally from Missouri.
37. David Condit was a member of the Pennsylvania party.
38. At this election J. W. Whitfield received 2,721 of a total vote of 2,738 for territorial delegate to the 34th congress. The Free-State men did not participate. On September 5-6, at the Big Springs convention, they had organized the Free-State party, nominated ex-Governor Reeder for delegate to congress, and named the second Tuesday in October as the date for their own congressional election.
39. Marcus H. Rose (see Footnote 17) and his nephew, Marcus C., had come to Kansas together. The latter was a young schoolteacher who taught a subscription school at the Sac and Fox agency from December, 1854, to the end of March, 1855. He returned to Pennsylvania in October, 1856, because of ill health. Early Days in Kansas . . . , C. R. Green's Historical Series (Olathe, 1913), v. 2, pp. [40-45].
40. Reeder received 82 votes at Council City and a total of 2,849 in the territory. In December both he and Whitfield claimed the seat as delegate from Kansas, but congress did not admit either of them.