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Title | Creator | Date Made Visible | None

Message of Charles Robinson, Governor of Kanzas, Delivered at Topeka, June 11, 1857

Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894

Charles Robinson addressed his remarks to the Senate and House of Representatives that met as the extra legal free state legislature during 1856 and 1857. He reviewed the violence that had occurred since the legislature first convened in March, 1856. He also indicated that since their terms would soon expire, the legislature needed to pass an election law and make provisions for a census, otherwise the free state government would no longer exist if it had not formal procedures for continuing. The address included several statements about how the officially recognized government was usurping its powers.

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Governor and Mrs. William Henry Avery at Cedar Crest, Topeka, Kansas

A photograph showing Governor and Mrs. William Henry Avery in the living room of Cedar Crest in Topeka, Kansas. Avery was born August 11, 191, near Wakefield, Kansas, and graduated from Wakefield High School and the University of Kansas. In 1964, Avery was elected the 37th governor of Kansas. He served one term as governor, losing a re-election bid to Robert Docking in 1966.

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Alfred Mossman Landon

Baugh's Studio

This photograph shows Alf Landon with his father John Manual Landon in their garden. Alf Landon is on the right.

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Charles Robinson to Amos Adams Lawrence

Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894

Transcription of a letter from the Amos Adams Lawrence Collection, Massachusetts Historical Society. Charles Robinson wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory to Amos A. Lawrence in Massachusetts. Robinson thanked Lawrence for his unfailing support of the enterprise of the Territory and claimed his devotion to work done in his interest. He discussed Lawrence's development, having secured the offices of three free state newspapers, but expressed anxiety about the upcoming territorial election. However, Robinson vowed that his men would not resort to fraudulent voting to win the majority over proslavery supporters.

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William Henry Avery and family

A photograph of Governor William Henry Avery and his family on the snow covered lawn in front of the Governor's mansion, Cedar Crest. The photograph was used on the Governor's Christmas card. Avery was born August 11, 1911 near Wakefield, Kansas, and graduated from Wakefield High School and the University of Kansas. A Republican, Avery served in the Kansas House of Representatives from 1950 to 1955. In 1954, he was elected to the United States House of Representatives and served until 1964. During his 10 years in Congress, he served on numerous committees. In 1964, Avery was elected the 37th governor of Kansas. He served one term as governor, losing a re-election bid to Robert Docking in 1966. After an unsuccessful bid for the United States Senate, Avery returned to private life.

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William Addison Phillips

Portrait of William Addison Phillips, an author, lawyer, journalist and politician. In 1857, Phillips attended the Constitution Convention at Topeka and the Free State Conventions at Centropolis, Lawrence, and Grasshopper Falls. He founded the town of Salina in April, 1858. In that same month and year, Phillips was nominated at the Topeka Free-State Convention under the Leavenworth Constitution to serve as a supreme court judge. He attended the Convention at Osawatomie and the Republican State Convention at Lawrence in 1859. Phillips served in the Kansas Volunteer Regiments and rose to the rank of colonel. From March 4, 1873 to March 3, 1875 Phillips was an at large representative to the United States Congress and from March 4, 1875 to March 3, 1879 he represented the First District.

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Organization of the free state government in Kansas with the inaugural speech and message of Governor Robinson

This pamphlet provides a vivid description of the scene, players, and proceedings of the initial sessions of the free-state government convened in Topeka. From Governor Charles Robinson's inaugural speech, the intent of the new legislature was clear: they convened in order to formulate a state government which would serve their political interests and would reflect the principle of "squatter [popular] sovereignty", since the existing territorial government was merely provisional and furthermore did not advance their free-state aspirations.

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Charles Robinson to Eli Thayer

Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894

Charles Robinson, writing from Lawrence, Kansas Territory to Eli Thayer in Worcester, Massachusetts, described voting irregularities in the March 30, 1855 election of members to the territorial legislature. Robinson maintained that the election was "controlled entirely by Missourians" who came to the territory, took over the polling places, and cast illegal ballots to ensure that proslavery supporters were elected to the legislature. Robinson also reported that free staters in Lawrence had formed themselves into four military companies, and urged Thayer to send Sharps rifles and cannons for these forces.

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William Henry Avery

A photograph of Governor William Henry Avery with two young boys in wheelchairs. This photograph of Avery was probably campaigning for a second term as governor. He was born August 11, 1911 near Wakefield, Kansas, and graduated from Wakefield High School and the University of Kansas. In 1964, Avery was elected the 37th governor of Kansas. He served one term as governor, losing a re-election bid to Robert Docking in 1966.

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John Whitnah Leedy house, Leroy, Kansas

This photograph represents the John Whitnah Leedy house in Leroy, Kansas. John W. Leedy was a Populist State Senator from 1893 to 1897, and Kansas Governor from 1897 to 1899. Standing at the left of the photograph is the eldest child of John W. and Sarah Leedy, Clara Romaine. To Clara's right in Margaret Amos, mother of John W. Beside her, is Sarah Leedy standing with her husband John W. and the Leedy's only son Boyd.

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